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Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association. (2010). Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010.
Abstract: In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,
zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as
reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial
operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,
Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from
September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made
the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that
administrative units have been increased and territories of
administrative units have been diminished. There have been four
provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation
limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than
ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.
Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of
species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in
banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,
Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing
in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently
necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures
into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across
hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.
Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national
cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of
cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of
Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report "Result of to unify
popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of
agricultural cooperatives" in the fourth meeting by the Central
Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December
16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of
1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %
of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals
amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total
animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article
mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in
Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such
number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into
five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult
animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally
in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food
of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main
nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the
soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of
secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of
ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt
one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for
domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big
game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and
hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.
Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give
prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly
it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15
USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially
picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow
leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack
domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of
ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting
wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't
consider it had been right since it was natural event. However
population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought
and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has
never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million
heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in
its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of
domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild
animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards
correctly with low costs.
Myroniuk, P. (1998). Snow leopards down under. In L. Blomqvist (Ed.), International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards (Vol. 7, p. 25). Helsinki: Helsinki Zoo.
Namgay, K. (2007). Snow Leopard and Prey Population Conservation in Bhutan.
Abstract: Snow leopard conservation work in Bhutan dates back to 1999 and 2000 when the International Snow Leopard Trust-in collaboration with the Royal Government of Bhutan and World Wildlife Fund-initiated a training workshop. More than 30 government staff were trained in SLIMS survey techniques. As a part of the training exercise, a preliminary survey on snow leopard was also carried out using the SLIMS methods in Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Park. Based on the survey results, we estimated there was a population of 100 snow leopards in the wild and 10,000 km2 of habitat. In 2005, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) organized the WWF/South Asia Regional Workshop on Snow leopard Conservation in Bhutan. Both regional (Bhutan, India, China, Nepal and Pakistan) and international experts revisited the snow leopard programs and developed a work plan for the overall conservation of the snow leopard in the region. This led to WWF's Regional Snow leopard Conservation Strategy. WWF is pleased to submit our final report to the International Snow Leopard Trust on the oneyear, $8,000 grant in support of Snow Leopard and Prey Population Conservation in Bhutan. With the support of the Snow Leopard Trust, we have made great strides towards achieving our goal for this project: To determine the current status of snow leopard and ungulate prey populations in prime snow leopard habitats. Major accomplishments and activities completed thanks to the generous support of the International Snow Leopard Trust include:
Signed of a Terms of Reference between Royal Government, International Snow Leopard
Trust – India, World Wildlife Fund and International Snow Leopard Trust -US;
Developed a joint revised project work plan; and
Purchased basic field supplies and equipment needed for the surveys planned.
Nishine, Y. (1998). The captive snow leopard programme (SSCJ) in Japan. In L. Blomqvist (Ed.), International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards (Vol. 7, pp. 21–25). Helsinki: Helsinki Zoo.
Oli, M. K. (1994). Snow leopards and blue sheep in Nepal: Densities and predator: prey ratio. Journal of Mammalogy, 75(4), 998–1004.
Abstract: I studied snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Manang District, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, to estimate numbers and analyze predator-prey interactions. Five to seven adult leopards used the 10-5-km-2 study area, a density of 4.8 to 6.7 leopards/100 km-2. Density of blue sheep was 6.6 10.2 sheep/km-2, and biomass density was 304 kg/km-2. Estimated relative biomass consumed by snow leopards suggested that blue sheep were the most important prey; marmots (Marmota himalayana) also contributed significantly to the diel of snow leopards Snow leopards in Manang were estimated to harvest 9-20% of total biomass and 11-24% of total number of blue sheep annually. Snow leopard: blue sheep ratio was 1:114-1:159 on a weight basis, which was considered sustainable given the importance of small mammals in the leopard's diet and the absence of other competing predators.
Peters, G. (1980). The vocal repertoire of the snow leopard (Uncia uncia, Schreber 1775). In L. Blomqvist (Ed.), International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards (Vol. 2, pp. 137–158). Helsinki: Helsinki Zoo.
Pfeil, A., Lucker, H., & Pfeil, I. (2004). Leiomyoma in the urinary bladder of a female snow leopard (Uncia uncia, Schreber, 1776). Tier„rztliche Praxis Kleintiere, 32(1), 40–44.
A leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 14-year-old female snow leopard exhibiting bloody vaginal discharge was removed by partial cystectomy. Gravel (struvite) was found in the urine of the inflammatory bladder. Additionally ovario-hysterectomy was performed. Histological findings showed a glandular-cystic hyperplasia. Tumors of the bladder are very rare in cats. Specifically the benign tumors of the bladder very often have no clinical relevance and rarely result in bladder dysfunction. Therefore they might remain undiagnosed in many cases, particularly since the diagnostic procedure in big cats is very extensive. Leiomyoma of the bladder in snow leopards have not been described yet. The present paper describes the surgery performed, the succeeding therapy, the struvit prophylaxis, and discusses the aetiology of the leiomyoma's origin on the basis of current literature. Zusammenfassung
Bei einer 14-j„hrigen Schneeleopardin mit blutigem Vaginalausfluss wurde ein Leiomyom der Blase durch partielle Zystektomie entfernt. Im Urin und in der entzndeten Blase konnte Grieá (Struvit) nachgewiesen werden. Gleichzeitig wurde eine Ovariohysterektomie durchgefhrt. Der histologische Befund ergab eine glandul„r-zystische Hyperplasie des Endometriums. Tumoren der Harnblase sind bei Katzen sehr selten. Vor allem benigne Blasentumoren haben oft keine klinische Relevanz und fhren selten zu Blasenfunktionsst”rungen. Es ist daher m”glich, dass sie insbesondere bei Groákatzen wegen der aufwendigen Diagnostik bersehen werden. Leiomyome in der Blase sind beim Schneeleoparden bisher nicht beschrieben. In diesem Artikel werden die durchgefhrte Operation, die folgende Therapie und Struvitprophylaxe beschrieben sowie m”gliche Žtiologien der Entstehung des Leiomyoms anhand der Literatur diskutiert.
Rieger, I. (1980). Some aspects of the history of ounce knowledge. In L. Blomqvist (Ed.), International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Vol. 2 (Vol. 2, pp. 1–36). Helsinki: Helsinki Zoo.
Rieger, I. (1982). Breeding ounces, Uncia uncia (Schreber, 1775) in zoological gardens. In L. Blomqvist (Ed.), International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Vol. 3 (Vol. 3, pp. 49–50). Helsinki: Helsinki Zoo.
Ruedi, D., Heldstab, A., & van den Ingh, T. S. G. A. M. (1980). Liver cirrhosis in snow leopards – further results. In L. Blomqvist (Ed.), International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards (Vol. 2, pp. 195–204). Helsinki: Helsinki Zoo.