Abdunazarov B.B. (2002). Biodiversity of mammals in the Western Tien Shan and its conservation.
Abstract: The mammal fauna of Uzbekistan's mountain ecosystems is represented by some 60 species. Data on mammal species composition in the Western Tien Shan (48 species) and Pamir-Alai (57 species) is given. A quantity of species endemic to the mountainous ecosystems of Uzbekistan is defined. Quantities of nine rare species inhabiting the mountain ecosystems, including snow leopard, are given. Number of snow leopard in Pamir-Alai and the Western Tien Shan is estimated to be 30-50 animals.
Anonymous. (2001). Snow leopard conservation: a NABU project in Kyrgyzstan. Oryx, 35(4), 354–355.
Abstract: Since 1999, NABU, the German Society for Nature Conservation, has been organizing the conservation of snow leopards Uncia uncia in Kyrgyzstan in an international project in cooperation with the Kyrgyz Ministry of the Environment, Emergencies and Civil Defence and the Kyrgyz Ministry of the Interior. The animal, with its typical grey-beige patterned fur and bushy tail, is one of the most endangered big cats in the world. It is categorized as Endangered on the 2000 IUCN Red List and is on CITES Appendix I.
Barnes, L. J. (1989). The Overt Illegal Fur Trade in Kathmandu, Nepal.
Bo, W. (2002). Illegal Trade of Snow Leopards in China: An Overview.. Islt: Islt.
Dexel, B. (2002). Snow Leopard Conservation In Kyrgyzstan: Enforcement, Education and Research Activities By the German Society for Nature Conservation (NABU).. Islt: Islt.
Dexel, B. (2003). The illegal trade in snow leopards – a global perspective (Vol. 8).
Hongfa, X. and K., C. (2006). The State of Wildlife Trade in China. Information on the trade in wild animals and plants in China 2006..
Abstract: Welcome to the first edition of The State of Wildlife Trade in China. This publication takes a broad look at wildlife trade over the past year, particularly concerning the impact of China's consumption on globally important biodiversity 'hotspots'. The focus of The State of Wildlife Trade in China is on emerging trends in China's wildlife trade and up-to-date reviews of work to stop illegal wildlife trade and support sustainable trade. The lead story in this issue is the illegal trade in Tigers and other Asian big cats. During 2006, surveys continued to document this illegal trade, as well as highlight opportunities for action. Other stories in this issue give updates on trade in reef fishes from Southeast Asia's 'Coral Triangle' and in timber from the forests of the Russian Far East, Borneo, and East Africa. China's wildlife trade presents both challenges and opportunities. This annual report aims to provide current information about wildlife trade in China and to provide avenues for involvement in China's conservation community. It is part of TRAFFIC's on-going commitment to turn information into action.
Keywords: clouded leopard, economy, illegal killing, leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, Panthera pardus, Panthera tigris, poaching, policy, snow leopard, tiger, trade, TRAFFIC, Uncia uncia
Kanderian, N., Lawson, D., Zahler, P. (2011). Current status of wildlife and conservation in Afghanistan. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 68(3), 281–298.
Abstract: Afghanistan’s position in latitude, geography and at the intersection of three biogeographic realms has resulted in a surprising biodiversity. Its wildlife includes species such as the snow leopard, Asiatic black bear, Marco Polo sheep, markhor and greater flamingo. Principal threats include high levels of deforestation, land encroachment and hunting for food and trade. Continuing security issues have also made it difficult to monitor species abundance and population trends. Over the last decade, however, survey efforts have provided the first collection of species and habitat data since the late 1970s. Initial findings are enabling the Government and rural communities to begin implementing important conservation measures. This process has included policy development and protected area planning, promoting alternative livelihoods and responsible community management, and continuing research into the status of biodiversity in the field.
Maheshwari, A., Niraj, S. K. (2018). Monitoring illegal trade in snow leopards: 2003e2014. Elsevier, , 1–6.
Abstract: Illegal trade in snow leopards (Panthera uncia) has been identified as one of the major
threats to long-term survival of the species in the wild. To quantify severity of the threats
to dwindling snow leopard population, we examined market and questionnaire surveys,
and information from the published and unpublished literature on illegal trade and
poaching of snow leopards.We collected information from 11 of the 12 snow leopard range
counties in central and southern Asia, barring Kazakhstan, and reported 439 snow leopards
(88 records) in illegal trade during 2003e2014, which represents a loss of approximately
8.4%e10.9% snow leopard population (assuming mid-point population of 5240 to
minimum population of 4000 individuals) in a period of 12 years. Our data suggested a 61%
decadal increase in snow leopard trade during 2003e2012 compared with 1993e2002,
while taking the note of significant strengthening of wildlife enforcement and crime
control network in the decades of 2000s and 2010s. We found 50% prosecution rate of
snow leopard crimes resulting in only 20% conviction rate globally. Many limitations e.g.,
secretive nature of illegal trade, ill developed enforcement mechanism, poor and passive
documentation of snow leopards' seizures, restricted us to reflect actual trend of snow
leopards' illegal trade. Even on a conservative scale the present situation is alarming and
may detrimental to snow leopard conservation. We propose an effective networking of
enforcement efforts and coordination among the law enforcement agencies, efficient
collection of data and data management, and sharing of intelligence in snow leopard range
countries, could be useful in curbing illegal trade in snow leopards in central and southern
Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association. (2010). Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010.
Abstract: In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,
zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as
reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial
operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,
Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from
September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made
the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that
administrative units have been increased and territories of
administrative units have been diminished. There have been four
provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation
limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than
ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.
Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of
species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in
banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,
Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing
in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently
necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures
into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across
hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.
Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national
cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of
cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of
Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report "Result of to unify
popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of
agricultural cooperatives" in the fourth meeting by the Central
Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December
16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of
1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %
of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals
amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total
animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article
mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in
Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such
number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into
five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult
animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally
in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food
of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main
nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the
soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of
secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of
ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt
one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for
domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big
game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and
hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.
Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give
prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly
it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15
USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially
picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow
leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack
domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of
ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting
wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't
consider it had been right since it was natural event. However
population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought
and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has
never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million
heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in
its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of
domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild
animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards
correctly with low costs.