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Ahmad, A. (1993). Environmental impact assessment in the Himalayas: An ecosystem approach (Vol. 22).
Abstract: The impact of human activities on the Himalayan bio-geophysical, socioeconomic and cultural environments has been analyzed. The main man-induced activities which threaten the equilibrium of Himalayan Mountain ecosystems are unplanned land use, cultivation on steep slopes, overgrazing, major engineering activities, overexploitation of village or community forests, shifting cultivation, unplanned tourism and urbanization. Cold desert conditions prevail in 41 692 square kilometers of the northwestern Himalayas. The geomorphological conditions and arrested succession, checking the climax formation, are major causes of landslides. Sedimentation, changes in surface and groundwater hydrology and clearfelling of broadleaved plant species have caused eutrophication, drying up of natural springs and receding of glaciers. Wild fauna like Musk deer (Moschus mischiferus) and Snow Leopard (Panthera uncial) are now under threat due to changes in their habitats. Population pressure, migration and settlements are major causes of poverty and agglomeration. And jeopardize the Himalayan environment. Based on detailed environmental impact assessment, an ecosystem approach has been proposed for resources conservation and environmentally sustainable development of the Himalayas.
Ahmad, A., Rawat, J. S., & Rai, S. C. (1990). An Analysis of the Himalayan Environment and Guidelines for its Management and Ecologically Sustainable Development. Environmentalist, 10(4), 281–298.
Abstract: The impacts of human activities on the bio-geophysical and socio-economic environment of the Himalayas are analysed. The main man-induced activities which have accelerated ecological degradation and threatened the equilibrium of Himalayan mountain ecosystems are stated as: unplanned land use, cultivation on steep slopes, overgrazing, major engineering activities, over-exploitation of village or community forests, lopping of broad leaved plant species, shifting cultivation (short cycle) in north-east India, tourism and recreation. The geomorphological conditions are major factors responsible for landslides which cause major havoc every year in the area. Wild fauna, like musk deer and the snow leopard are now under threat partially due to changes in their habitat and the introduction of exotic plant species. Population pressure and migration are major factors responsible for poverty in the hills. The emigration of the working male population has resulted in the involvement of women as a major work-force. Guidelines, with special emphasis on the application of environmental impact assessments for the management of the Himalayas, are proposed. -from Authors
Allen, P., & Macray, D. (2002). Snow Leopard Enterprises Description and Summarized Business Plan.. Seattle: Islt.
Abstract: The habitat for both humans and snow leopards in Central Asia is marginal, the ecosystem fragile. The struggle for humans to survive has often, unfortunately, brought them into conflict with the region's dwindling snow leopard populations. Herders commonly see leopards as a threat to their way of life and well-being. Efforts to improve the living conditions of humans must consider potential impacts on the environment. Likewise, conservation initiatives cannot ignore humans as elements of the landscape with a right to live with dignity and pride. Based on these principles, the International Snow Leopard Trust has developed a new conservation model that addresses the needs of all concerned.
We call it Snow Leopard Enterprises..
Anonymous. (2000). Save the Snow Leopard. (Road and Gas Pipeline Project Threatens Ecology of Siberia). The Ecologist, 30(4), 14.
Abstract: An interregional organisation called Siberian Accord plans to construct a road and gas pipeline to China, This association, which has vast political powers, exists to create favorable conditions for investing in Siberia.
Anonymous. (2000). Snow leopard management plan of Mongolia (draft).
Dexel, B. (2002). Snow Leopard Conservation In Kyrgyzstan: Enforcement, Education and Research Activities By the German Society for Nature Conservation (NABU).. Islt: Islt.
Farrington, J. (2005). A Report on Protected Areas, Biodiversity, and Conservation in the Kyrgyzstan Tian Shan with Brief Notes on the Kyrgyzstan Pamir-Alai and the Tian Shan Mountains of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and China. Ph.D. thesis, , Kyrgyzstan.
Abstract: Kyrgyzstan is a land of towering mountains, glaciers, rushing streams, wildflowercovered meadows, forests, snow leopards, soaring eagles, and yurt-dwelling nomads. The entire nation lies astride the Tian Shan1, Chinese for “Heavenly Mountains”, one of the world's highest mountain ranges, which is 7439 m (24,400 ft) in elevation at its highest point. The nation is the second smallest of the former Soviet Central Asian republics. In
spite of Kyrgyzstan's diverse wildlife and stunning natural beauty, the nation remains little known, and, as yet, still on the frontier of international conservation efforts. The following report is the product of 12 months of research into the state of conservation and land-use in Kyrgyzstan. This effort was funded by the Fulbright Commission of the U.S. State Department, and represents the most recent findings of the author's personal environmental journey through Inner Asia, which began in 1999. When I first started my preliminary research for this project, I was extremely surprised to learn that, even though the Tian Shan Range has tremendous ecological significance for conservation efforts in middle Asia, there wasn't a single major international conservation organization with an office in the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Even more surprising was how little awareness there is of conservation issues in the Tian Shan region amongst conservation workers in neighboring areas who are attempting to preserve similar species assemblages and ecosystems to those found in the Tian Shan. Given this lack of awareness, and the great potential for the international community to make a positive contribution towards improving the current state of biodiversity conservation in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia, I have summarized my findings on protected areas and conservation in Kyrgyzstan and the Tian Shan of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Xinjiang in the chapters below. The report begins with some brief background information on geography and society in the Kyrgyz Republic, followed by an overview of biodiversity and the state of conservation in the nation, which at the present time closely parallels the state of conservation in the other former Soviet Central Asian republics. Part IV of the report provides a catalog of all major protected areas in Kyrgyzstan and the other Tian Shan nations, followed by a list of sites in Kyrgyzstan that are as yet unprotected but merit protection. In the appendices the reader will find fairly comprehensive species lists of flora and fauna found in the Kyrgyz Republic, including lists of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, trees and shrubs, wildflowers, and endemic plants. In addition, a
draft paper on the history and current practice of pastoral nomadism in Kyrgyzstan has been included in Appendix A. While the research emphasis for this study was on eastern Kyrgyzstan, over the course of the study the author did have the opportunity to make brief journeys to southern Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang. While falling short of being a definitive survey of protected areas of the Tian Shan, the informational review which
follows is the first attempt at bringing the details of conservation efforts throughout the entire Tian Shan Range together in one place. It is hoped that this summary of biodiversity and conservation in the Tian Shan will generate interest in the region amongst conservationists, and help increase efforts to protect this surprisingly unknown range that forms an island of meadows, rivers, lakes, and forests in the arid heart of Asia.
Ferretti, F., Lovari, S. (2016). Predation may counteract climatic change as a driving force for movements of mountain ungulates.
Abstract: Temperature variations are expected to influence altitudinal movements of mountain herbivores and, in
turn, those of their predators, but relevant information is scarce. We evaluated monthly relationships
between temperature and altitude used by a large mountain-dwelling herbivore, the Himalayan tahr
Hemitragus jemlahicus, and its main predator, the snow leopard Panthera uncia, in an area of central
Himalaya for five consecutive years (2006–2010). In contrast to expectations, there was no significant
direct relationship between altitude of tahr sightings and temperature. The mean altitude of tahr sightings
decreased by c. 200 m throughout our study. As expected, snow leopard movements tracked those of tahr,
although the core area of the snow leopard did not move downwards. Tahr remained the staple of the
snow leopard diet: we suggest that the former did not move upwards in reaction to higher temperature
to avoid encounters with the latter. Avoidance of competition with the larger common leopard Panthera
pardus at lower altitudes could explain why snow leopards did not shift their core area downwards.
Apparently, interspecific interactions (predation; competition) influenced movements of Himalayan tahr
and snow leopards more than climatic variations.
Government of India. (1988). The snow leopard conservation scheme.
Hussain, S. (2002). Nature and Human Nature: Conservation, Values and Snow Leopard.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: The failure of top-down environmental conservation practices gave rise to the so-called
`Community Based Conservation' or CBC approach. CBC promises to achieve the dual goals of
conserving nature and improving peoples' livelihoods. CBC programs also aim to involve local
communities as active partners in conservation efforts, and to use traditional knowledge and
local values in management of resources (Adams & Hulme 2001; Agrawal & Gibson 1999).
There are variations between different CBC programs; however, the underlying rationale of the
approach, common to all programs, is that introducing or changing economic incentives into the
conservation calculus of local people will bring about the behavioural change necessary for
successful conservation (Kellert et al 2000). Thus, the major emphasis in CBC programs is
conserving nature based on its utilitarian value. Since utilitarian value is measured in terms of
economics, hence the emphasis of CBCs on economic incentives in promoting conservation.
Recent evaluation of the CBC approach has shown that while local people may have benefited in
economic terms from the use of nature, no tangible improvements in biodiversity conservation
have occurred (Kellert et al 2000; Terborgh 1999). The disappointing performance of CBC
programs, which promised so much and yet have failed in practice to deliver, has recently lead to
a resurgence of the protectionist approach, calling for a renewed separation between the
conservation and human development objectives (Redford & Sanderson 2000; Terborgh 1999;
Oats 1999). Others, however, believe that the CBC approach has enormous potential, and that a
return to protectionist strategies would be disastrous, like `reinventing the square wheel'
(Brechin 2001; Wilhusen 2001). It is crucial that the flaws in the CBC approach are remedied if
there is to be any hope of a conservation agenda that does not conflict with the needs, aspirations
and interests of local people, and that therefore has a chance of having a long term, sustainable