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Abdunazarov B.B. (2002). Biodiversity of mammals in the Western Tien Shan and its conservation.
Abstract: The mammal fauna of Uzbekistan's mountain ecosystems is represented by some 60 species. Data on mammal species composition in the Western Tien Shan (48 species) and Pamir-Alai (57 species) is given. A quantity of species endemic to the mountainous ecosystems of Uzbekistan is defined. Quantities of nine rare species inhabiting the mountain ecosystems, including snow leopard, are given. Number of snow leopard in Pamir-Alai and the Western Tien Shan is estimated to be 30-50 animals.
Bagchi, S., Sharma, R. K., Bhatnagar, Y.V. (2020). Change in snow leopard predation on livestock after revival of wild prey in the Trans-Himalaya. Wildlife Biology, , 1–11.
Abstract: Human–wildlife conflict arising from livestock-losses to large carnivores is an important challenge faced by conservation. Theory of prey–predator interactions suggests that revival of wild prey populations can reduce predator’s dependence on livestock in multiple-use landscapes. We explore whether 10-years of conservation efforts to revive wild prey could reduce snow leopard’s Panthera uncia consumption of livestock in the coupled human-and-natural Trans-Himalayan ecosystem of northern India. Starting in 2001, concerted conservation efforts at one site (intervention) attempted recovery of wild- prey populations by creating livestock-free reserves, accompanied with other incentives (e.g. insurance, vigilant herding). Another site, 50km away, was monitored as status quo without any interventions. Prey remains in snow leopard scats were examined periodically at five-year intervals between 2002 and 2012 to determine any temporal shift in diet at both sites to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation interventions. Consumption of livestock increased at the status quo site, while it decreased at the intervention-site. At the intervention-site, livestock-consumption reduced during 2002–2007 (by 17%, p = 0.06); this effect was sustained during the next five-year interval, and it was accompanied by a persistent increase in wild prey populations. Here we also noted increased predator populations, likely due to immigration into the study area. Despite the increase in the predator population, there was no increase in livestock-consumption. In contrast, under status quo, dependence on livestock increased during both five-year intervals (by 7%, p=0.08, and by 16%, p=0.01, respectively). These contrasts between the trajectories of the two sites suggest that livestock-loss can potentially be reduced through the revival of wild prey. Further, accommodating counter-factual scenarios may be an important step to infer whether conservation efforts achieve their targets, or not.
Farrington, J. (2005). A Report on Protected Areas, Biodiversity, and Conservation in the Kyrgyzstan Tian Shan with Brief Notes on the Kyrgyzstan Pamir-Alai and the Tian Shan Mountains of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and China. Ph.D. thesis, , Kyrgyzstan.
Abstract: Kyrgyzstan is a land of towering mountains, glaciers, rushing streams, wildflowercovered meadows, forests, snow leopards, soaring eagles, and yurt-dwelling nomads. The entire nation lies astride the Tian Shan1, Chinese for “Heavenly Mountains”, one of the world's highest mountain ranges, which is 7439 m (24,400 ft) in elevation at its highest point. The nation is the second smallest of the former Soviet Central Asian republics. In
spite of Kyrgyzstan's diverse wildlife and stunning natural beauty, the nation remains little known, and, as yet, still on the frontier of international conservation efforts. The following report is the product of 12 months of research into the state of conservation and land-use in Kyrgyzstan. This effort was funded by the Fulbright Commission of the U.S. State Department, and represents the most recent findings of the author's personal environmental journey through Inner Asia, which began in 1999. When I first started my preliminary research for this project, I was extremely surprised to learn that, even though the Tian Shan Range has tremendous ecological significance for conservation efforts in middle Asia, there wasn't a single major international conservation organization with an office in the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Even more surprising was how little awareness there is of conservation issues in the Tian Shan region amongst conservation workers in neighboring areas who are attempting to preserve similar species assemblages and ecosystems to those found in the Tian Shan. Given this lack of awareness, and the great potential for the international community to make a positive contribution towards improving the current state of biodiversity conservation in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia, I have summarized my findings on protected areas and conservation in Kyrgyzstan and the Tian Shan of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Xinjiang in the chapters below. The report begins with some brief background information on geography and society in the Kyrgyz Republic, followed by an overview of biodiversity and the state of conservation in the nation, which at the present time closely parallels the state of conservation in the other former Soviet Central Asian republics. Part IV of the report provides a catalog of all major protected areas in Kyrgyzstan and the other Tian Shan nations, followed by a list of sites in Kyrgyzstan that are as yet unprotected but merit protection. In the appendices the reader will find fairly comprehensive species lists of flora and fauna found in the Kyrgyz Republic, including lists of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, trees and shrubs, wildflowers, and endemic plants. In addition, a
draft paper on the history and current practice of pastoral nomadism in Kyrgyzstan has been included in Appendix A. While the research emphasis for this study was on eastern Kyrgyzstan, over the course of the study the author did have the opportunity to make brief journeys to southern Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang. While falling short of being a definitive survey of protected areas of the Tian Shan, the informational review which
follows is the first attempt at bringing the details of conservation efforts throughout the entire Tian Shan Range together in one place. It is hoped that this summary of biodiversity and conservation in the Tian Shan will generate interest in the region amongst conservationists, and help increase efforts to protect this surprisingly unknown range that forms an island of meadows, rivers, lakes, and forests in the arid heart of Asia.
Koshkarev, E. (1998). Snow leopard along the border of Russia and Mongolia. Cat News, 28, 12–14.
Abstract: The author discusses the distribution of snow leopards along the border of Russia and Mongolia. The range extension of the leopard indicates their ability to cross desert areas that separate mountain habitats.habitat; range extension; scat analysis; techniques; tracks/tracking | snow leopard
Ming, M., Yun, G., & Bo, W. (2008). Man & the Biosphere: The special series for the conservation of Snow Leopards in China (Vol. 54).
Abstract: The Chinese magazine <Man & the Biosphere> (Series No. 54, No. 6, 2008) -- A special series for the conservation of Snow Leopards was published by the Chinese National Committee for Man & the Biosphere in 15th December 2008. It is about 80 pages including ten articles with 200 color pictures. The special editors of this issue are the experts from SLT/XCF Prof. MaMing, Mrs. Ge Yun and Mr. Wen Bo. The first paper is “A King of Snow Peaks, Another Endangered Flagship Species” by Dr. Thomas McCarthy, Dr. Urs Breitenmmoser and Dr. Christine Breitenmoser-Wursten (Page 1-1). Another paper “ Conservation : Turning Awareness to Action ” is also from Dr. Thomas McCarthy (Pages from 6-17). There are four articles including the diary and story of the Surveys in Tomur Mountain and Kunlun Mountains written by Prof. MaMing, Mr. XuFeng, Miss Chen Ying and Miss Cheng Yun from the Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group and XCF, the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The last is “Snow Leopard Enterprises ” -- A Story from Mongolia by Mrs. Jennifer Snell Rullman and Mrs. Agvaantseren Bayarjargal (Bayara). It is a very useful copy for the conservation in China. Cited as:
Ma Ming, GeYun and WenBo (Special editors of this issue). 2008. The special series for the conservation of Snow Leopards in China. Man & the Biosphere 2008(6): 1-80. Contents 1, A king of snow peaks, another endangered flagship species (Synopsis) ------------- 1-1 The contents --------------------------------------------- ( pages from 2-3 )
2, Protecting Snow Leopard means protecting a healthy eco-systems -------------- 4-5
3, Conservation: Turning awareness into action -------------- 6-17
4, Chinese Snow Leopard Team goes into action -------------- 18-25
5, A diary of infrared photography -------------- 26-35
6, Why have the snow leopards in the Tianshan Mountains begun to attack livestock? --- 36-43
7, The mystery of the Snow Leopards coming down the Tianshan Mountains ----------- 44-45
8, Snow leopards secluded Home on the Plateau ------------- 46-59
9, He saw Snow Leopards 30 years ago ------------- 60-69
10, Snow Leopard Enterprises -- A story from Mongolia ------------- 70-80
Murali, R., Ikhagvajav, P., Amankul, V., Jumabay, K., Sharma,
K., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Suryawanshi, K., Mishra, C. (2020). Ecosystem service dependence in livestock and crop-based. Journal of Arid Environments, 180, 1–10.
Abstract: Globally, in semi-arid and arid landscapes, there is an
ongoing transition from livestock-production systems to crop-production
systems, and in many parts of Asia's arid mountains, mining for minerals
is also increasing. These changes are accompanied by a change in the
generation and quality of ecosystem services (ES), which can impact
human well-being. In this study, to better understand the impacts of
such transitions, we quantified ES in two crop-based and three
livestock-based production systems in the arid and semi-arid landscapes
of the High Himalaya and Central Asia, specifically in the Indian
Himalaya, Kyrgyz Tien Shan, and Mongolian Altai. Our results showed 1)
high economic dependence (3.6–38 times the respective annual household
income) of local farmers on provisioning ES, with the economic value of
ES being greater in livestock-production systems (7.4–38 times the
annual household income) compared to crop-production systems (3.6–3.7
times the annual household income); 2) ES input into cashmere
production, the main commodity from the livestock-production systems,
was 13–18 times greater than the price of cashmere received by the
farmer; and 3) in the livestock production systems affected by mining,
impacts on ES and quality of life were reported to be negative by
majority of the respondents. We conclude that livestock-based systems
may be relatively more vulnerable to degrading impacts of mining and
other ongoing developments due to their dependence on larger ES resource
catchments that tend to have weaker land tenure and are prone to
fragmentation. In contrast to the general assumption of low value of ES
in arid and semi-arid landscapes due to relatively low primary
productivity, our study underscores the remarkably high importance of ES
in supporting local livelihoods.