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|Ale, S. B. (1994). Snow Leopard in Remote Districts of Nepal (Vol. xii). Seattle: Islt.|
Alexander, J., Chen, P., Damerell, P., Youkui, W., Hughes, J., Shi, K., Riordan, P. (2015). Human wildlife conflict involving large carnivores in Qilianshan, China and the minimal paw-print of snow leopards. Biological Conservation, 187, 1–9.
Abstract: In this paper, we assess local perceptions towards snow leopards in North West China using a framework
depicting key conflict domains. We describe the perceived threats posed to humans by the snow leopard
and set them within beliefs and attitudes towards other species within the large carnivore assemblage in
this region. Surveys were conducted in seven villages within Qilianshan National Nature Reserve, Gansu
Province, China, to document reports of snow leopard (Panthera uncia), grey wolf (Canis lupus), Eurasian
lynx (Lynx lynx) and brown bear (Ursus arctos) depredation of livestock, and local attitudes towards each
species. Questionnaire-based interviews were held with 60 households and 49 livestock herders. Herding
of yak, sheep and goats was found to be a common livelihood activity among households in all villages.
Herders reported losing livestock to all four carnivore species. Herders reported that depredation was the
most common event affecting livestock, compared with natural disasters or disease, and represented a
total loss of 3.6% of the livestock population during the previous year. Most (53%) depredation losses were
attributed to lynx, while snow leopards were held responsible for only 7.8% of depredation losses. The
reported impact of snow leopards on herding activities was relatively small and the majority of both
householders and herders expressed positive attitudes towards them and supported measures for their
protection. Households and herders held negative attitudes towards lynx, wolves and bears, however,
most likely due to their perceived threat to livestock and humans. Understanding community perceptions
of threats posed by wildlife is vital for gaining community support for, and engagement in, conflict
Augugliaro, C., Christe, P., Janchivlamdan, C., Baymanday, H.,
Zimmermann, F. (2020). Patterns of human interaction with snow leopard and co-predators
in the Mongolian western Altai: Current issues and perspectives. Global Ecology and Conservation, 24, 1–21.
Abstract: Large carnivores can cause considerable economic damage,
mainly due to livestock depredation. These conficts instigate negative
attitude towards their conservation, which could in the extreme case
lead to retaliatory killing. Here we focus on the snow leopard (Panthera
uncia), a species of conservation concern with particularly large
spatial requirements. We conducted the study in the Bayan Olgii
province, one of the poorest provinces of Mongolia, where the majority
of the human population are traditional herders. We conducted a survey
among herders (N 261) through a semi-structured questionnaire with the
aim to assess: the current and future herding practices and prevention
measures, herders’ perceptions and knowledge of the environmental
protection and hunting laws; the perceived livestock losses to snow
leopard, wolf (Canis lupus), and wolverine (Gulo gulo), as well as to
non-predatory factors; the key factors affecting livestock losses to
these three large carnivores; and, finally, the attitudes towards these
three large carnivores. Non-predatory causes of mortality were slightly
higher than depredation cases, representing 4.5% and 4.3% of livestock
holdings respectively. While no depredation of livestock was reported
from wolverines, snow leopard and wolf depredation made up 0.2% and 4.1%
of total livestock holdings, respectively. Herders’ attitudes towards
the three large carnivores were negatively affected by the magnitude of
the damages since they had a positive overall attitude towards both snow
leopard and wolverine, whereas the attitude towards wolf was negative.
We discuss conservation and management options to mitigate herder-snow
leopard impacts. To palliate the negative consequences of the increasing
trend in livestock numbers, herd size reduction should be encouraged by
adding economic value to the individual livestock and/or by promoting
alternative income and/or ecotourism. Furthermore, co-management between
government and stakeholders would help tackle this complex problem, with
herders playing a major role in the development of livestock management
strategies. Traditional practices, such as regularly shifting campsites
and using dogs and corrals at night, could reduce livestock losses
caused by snow leopards.
Filla, M., Lama, R. P., Filla, T., Heurich, M., Balkenhol, N., Waltert, M., Khorozyan, I. (2022). Patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and effects of intervention strategies: lessons from the Nepalese Himalaya. Wildlife Research, .
Abstract: Context: Large carnivores are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities, and their protection is among the main goals of biodiversity conservation. The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits high-mountain landscapes where livestock depredation drives it into conflicts with local people and poses an obstacle for its conservation.
Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the livestock groups most vulnerable to depredation, target them in implementation of practical interventions, and assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies for conflict mitigation. We present a novel attempt to evaluate intervention strategies for particularly vulnerable species, age groups, time, and seasons.
Methods: In 2020, we conducted questionnaire surveys in two regions of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal (Manang, n = 146 respondents and Upper Mustang, n = 183). We applied sample comparison testing, Jacobs’ selectivity index, and generalised linear models (GLMs) to assess rates and spatio-temporal heterogeneity of depredation, reveal vulnerable livestock groups, analyse potential effects of applied intervention strategies, and identify husbandry factors relevant to depredation.
Key results: Snow leopard predation was a major cause of livestock mortality in both regions (25.4–39.8%), resulting in an estimated annual loss of 3.2–3.6% of all livestock. The main intervention strategies (e.g. corrals during night-time and herding during daytime) were applied inconsistently and not associated with decreases in reported livestock losses. In contrast, we found some evidence that dogs, deterrents (light, music playing, flapping tape, and dung burning), and the use of multiple interventions were associated with a reduction in reported night-time depredation of yaks.
Conclusions and implications: We suggest conducting controlled randomised experiments for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of dogs, deterrents, and the use of multiple interventions, and widely applying the most effective ones in local communities. This would benefit the long-term co-existence of snow leopards and humans in the Annapurna region and beyond.
Keywords: Annapurna, co-existence, conservation biology, highland communities, human–wildlife conflict, large carnivore, livestock depredation, Panthera uncia, prey selection, snow leopard.
Freeman, H., Jackson, R., Hillard, R., & Hunter, D. O. (1994). Project Snow Leopard: a multinational program spearheaded by the International Snow Leopard Trust. In J.L.Fox, & D. Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 241–245). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: Project-snow-leopard; biodiversity; conservation; protected-areas; parks; park; refuge; reserve; habitat; status; predator; prey; livestock; herders; poaching; hunting; skins; pelts; coats; fur; bones; medicine; management; livestock-depredation; trade; corridors; trans-boundry; project; protected-area; protected; area; areas; livestock depredation; depredation; browse; 2780
|International Snow Leopard Trust. (1986). Indo-US Snow Leopard Project (Vol. No. 10). Seattle: Islt.|
|International Snow Leopard Trust. (1999). International Snow Leopard Trust, Conservation and Education Program for 1999.|
|Jackson, R. (1990). Threatened wildlife, crop, and livestock depredation and grazing in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area.|
Jackson, R. (1992). SSC Plan for Snow Leopard.
Keywords: physiology; status; distribution; description; behavior; reproduction; mating; breeding; vocalization; gestation; biology; habitat; scrapes; sprays; scat; feces; longevity; homerange; home-range; prey; diet; Cites; Iunc; parks; preserves; reserves; refuge; protected-areas; movements; activity; livestock; herders; depredation; conflict; trade; poaching; hunting; research; captivity; management; zoos; Slims; surveys; transects; browse; home range; home; range; protected area; protected areas; protected; area; areas; 3920; plan; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard
Jackson, R. (1998). People-Wildlife Conflict Management in the Qomolangma Nature Preserve, Tibet. In W. Ning, D. Miller, L. Zhu, & J. Springer (Eds.), (pp. 40–46). Tibet's Biodiversity: Conservation and Management.. China: Tibet Forestry Department and World Wide Fund for Nature. China Forestry Publishing House.
Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to report on people-wildlife conflicts arising from crop damage and livestock depredation in the Qomolangma Reserve, with special reference to the management of protected and endangered mammals.
Keywords: conflict; conflict management; management; Qomolangma; nature; preserve; Tibet; primary; Report; conflicts; damage; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; reserve; protected; endangered; endangered mammals; mammals; biodiversity; conservation
Jackson, R. (1999). Managing people-wildlife conflict in Tibet's Qomolangma National Nature Preserve.
Keywords: Qomolangma; livestock; Tibet; predator; predation; prey; protected-areas; parks; reserves; conflict; corrals; pens; depredation; livestock-depredation; browse; livestock depredation; protected; area; areas; protected area; protected areas; 4020
Jackson, R. (2000). Linking Snow Leopard Conservation and People-Wildlife Conflict Resolution, Summary of a multi-country project aimed at developing grass-roots measures to protect the endangered snow leopard from herder retribution. Cat News, 33, 12–15.
Keywords: livestock-depredation; livestock; pastoralists; herders; Pakistan; Nepal; Tibet; Mongolia; India; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; snow-leopard-incentive-program; economics; tourism; pens; corrals; enclosures; trapping; poisoning; killing; cubs; dens; retribution; behavior; predator; prey; Qomolangma; habitat; feces; fecal-analysis; compensation; Dogs; guard-dogs; religion; conservation; browse; depredation; snow; leopard; incentive; program; fecal; analysis; guard; Dog; 4000
|Jackson, R. (2000). The Snow Leopard Conservancy, Dedicated to demonstrating innovative, grassroots measures that lead local shepherds to become better stewards of the endangered snow leopard, its prey and habitat.|
Jackson, R., & Wangchuk, R. (2004). A Community-Based Approach to Mitigating Livestock Depredation by Snow Leopards (Vol. 9).
Abstract: Livestock depredation by the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) _is an increasingly contentious issue in Himalayan villages, especially in or near protected areas. Mass attacks in which as many as 100 sheep and goats are killed in a single incident inevitably result in retaliation by local villagers. This article describes a community-based conservation initiative to address this problem in Hemis National Park, India. Human-wildlife conflict is alleviated by predator-proofing villagers' nighttime livestock pens and by enhancing household incomes in environmentally sensitive and culturally compatible ways. The authors have found that the highly participatory strategy described here (Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action-APPA) leads to a sense of project ownership by local stakeholders, communal empowerment, self-reliance, and willingness to co-exist with
snow leopards. The most significant conservation outcome of this process is the protection from retaliatory poaching of up to five snow leopards for every village's livestock pens that are made predator-proof._
Keywords: snow leopard,depredation,human-wildlife conflict,participatory planning,India; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; endangered; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; panthera; panthera uncia; Panthera-uncia; uncia; Himalayan; protected; protected areas; protected area; protected-areas; protected-area; areas; area; attack; sheep; goats; goat; local; villagers; community-based; conservation; Hemis; national; national park; National-park; park; India; conflict; pens; income; participatory; strategy; planning; sense; project; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; protection; retaliatory; poaching
Jackson, R., Wangchuk, R., & Hillard, D. (2002). Grassroots Measures to Protect the Endangered Snow Leopard from Herder Retribution: Lessons Learned from Predator-Proofing Corrals in Ladahh.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: Livestock depredation is an increasingly contentious issue across the range of the
endangered snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Depredation is most severe in or near protected areas
offering core habitat for this cat. “Surplus killing,” in which as many as 100 sheep and goats have
been killed in a single night, inevitably results in attempts at retaliatory killing of predators by
herders suffering significant loss. Ironically, such predation by snow leopard, wolf, or lynx can be
avoided by adequately predator-proofing nighttime enclosures. Predation on the open range is far
more difficult to address, but may be reduced to acceptable levels through improved day-time
guarding of livestock, educating herders on the importance of protecting the predator's natural prey
base, and by providing economic incentives to help offset unavoidable loss.
This paper describes community-based initiatives being undertaken in India's Hemis National Park
aimed at predator-proofing livestock corrals and encouraging local herders to become more effective
stewards of the snow leopard, its prey and habitat. A highly participatory, 4-step process known as
Appreciative Participatory Planning and Action (APPA) provides the primary mechanism for
assisting communities to develop Action Plans to reduce livestock depredation losses, increase
household incomes, and strengthen environmental stewardship. Herders are informed about the
Snow Leopard Stewardship program and conditions for a successful outcome. The team, comprised
of local people, NGO staff, facilitators and government officials, first identifies the root causes for
depredation (Discovery). Under the next phase, Dreaming, participants envision how their village
might appear if depredation losses were reduced to acceptable levels, household incomes increased,
and snow leopards fully protected. This provides a good basis upon which to collaboratively devise
actions for addressing the community's concerns (Design). Delivery involves implementing actions
under the overall Action Plan, as well as specific measures that can be acted upon immediately. The
community is encouraged to use simple but realistic indicators for monitoring the project's
In Lessons Learned to Date, we highlight the importance of providing meaningful community
involvement from inception through project implementation and monitoring. The use of _APPA
_greatly increases ownership, communal empowerment and self-reliance, and local people's
willingness to protect wildlife. The Snow Leopard Conservancy believes that the most effective
conservation actions will be contingent upon (1) establishing direct linkages with biodiversity
protection; (2) ensuring reciprocal co-financing and commensurate responsibility from the
community; (3) encouraging full participation from all stakeholders irrespective of their gender, age
or economic status; and (4) ensuring regular monitoring and evaluation under an agreed-to Action
Plan that sets forth the responsibilities, contributions and obligations of each partner.
Keywords: snow; leopard; livestock; depredation; herder; conflict; Ladakh; predator; protection; predation; protected; uncia; 4960
Jackson, R. M., Ahlborn, G., Gurung, M., & Ale, S. (1996). Reducing livestock depredation losses in the Nepalese Himalaya. Proc.Vertebr.Pest Conf, 17, 241–247.
Abstract: The authors investigated livestock depredation patterns of snow leopards on the northern slopes of the Himalayans near the villages of Manang and Khangshar, Nepal. Information is discussed on the relationships among livestock loss, endangered species management, public relations/conservation issues, and cooperative efforts among institutions involved in the decision making process. A plan is devised for alleviating livestock loss and protecting endangered species in the area. pcp
Keywords: damage; damage-by-wildlife; endangered; threatened species; livestock; mammals; management; predator-control; public-relations; wildlife; livestock-relationships; Nepal; asia; herders; conservation; Manang; Khangshar; depredation; conflict; predator; prey; browse; public; threatened; species; control; Relations; 700
Kachel, S., Anderson, K., Shokirov, Q. (2022). Predicting carnivore habitat use and livestock depredation risk with false-positive multi-state occupancy models. Biological Conservation, 271(109588), 1–10.
Abstract: The cycle of livestock depredation and retaliatory killing constitutes a major threat to large carnivores worldwide and imposes considerable hardships on human communities. Mitigation efforts are often undertaken with little knowledge of ecological underpinnings and patterns of depredation, limiting conservationists' ability to develop, prioritize, and evaluate solutions. Carnivore detection and depredation data from interviews in affected communities may help address this gap, but such data are often prone to false-positive uncertainty. To address these challenges in the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan we collected snow leopard, lynx, wolf, and bear detection and depredation reports from local communities via semi-structured interviews. We used a novel hierarchical multi-species multi-state occupancy model that accounted for potential false-positives to investigate carnivore site use and depredation concurrently with respondents' apparent vulnerability to that risk. Estimated false-positive probabilities were small, but failure to account for them overstated site use probabilities and depredation risk for all species. Although individual vulnerability was low, depredation was nonetheless commonplace. Carnivore site use was driven by clear habitat associations, but we did not identify any clearly important large-scale spatial correlates of depredation risk despite considerable spatial variation in that risk. Respondents who sheltered livestock in household corrals reinforced with wire mesh were less likely to report snow leopard depredations. Reducing depredation and retaliation at adequately large scales in the Pamirs will likely require a portfolio of species-specific strategies, including widespread proactive corral improvements. Our approach expanded inference on the often-cryptic processes surrounding human-carnivore conflict even though structured wildlife data were scarce.
Keywords: Bayesian hierarchical model,False-positive,Multi-state occupancy,Human-carnivore conflict,Livestock depredation,Snow leopard,Lynx,Wolf,Bear
Karki, A., Panthi, S. (2021). Factors affecting livestock depredation by snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in the Himalayan region of Nepal. PeerJ, 9(e11575), 1–14.
Abstract: The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) found in central Asia is classified as vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Every year, large number of livestock are killed by snow leopards in Nepal, leading to economic loss to local communities and making human-snow leopard conflict a major threat to snow leopard conservation. We conducted formal and informal stakeholder’s interviews to gather information related to livestock depredation with the aim to map the attack sites by the snow leopard. These sites were further validated by district forest office staffs to assess sources of bias. Attack sites older than 3 years were removed from the survey. We found 109 attack sites and visited all the sites for geo location purpose (GPS points of all unique sites were taken). We maintained at least a 100 m distance between attack locations to ensure that each attack location was unique, which resulted in 86 unique locations. A total of 235 km2 was used to define livestock depredation risk zone during this study. Using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling, we found that distance to livestock sheds, distance to paths, aspect, and distance to roads were major contributing factors to the snow leopard’s attacks. We identified 13.64 km2 as risk zone for livestock depredation from snow leopards in the study area. Furthermore, snow leopards preferred to attack livestock near livestock shelters, far from human paths and at moderate distance from motor roads. These identified attack zones should be managed both for snow leopard conservation and livestock protection in order to balance human livelihoods while protecting snow leopards and their habitats.
Khanal, G., Mishra, C., Suryawanshi, K. R. (2020). Relative influence of wild prey and livestock abundance on
carnivore-caused livestock predation. Ecology and Evolution, , 1–11.
Abstract: Conservation conflict over livestock depredation is one of the
key drivers of large mammalian carnivore declines worldwide. Mitigating
this conflict requires strategies informed by reliable knowledge of
factors influencing livestock depredation. Wild prey and livestock
abundance are critical factors influencing the extent of livestock
depredation. We compared whether the extent of livestock predation by
snow leopards Panthera uncia differed in relation to densities of wild
prey, livestock, and snow leopards at two sites in Shey Phoksundo
National Park, Nepal. We used camera trap-based spatially explicit
capture–recapture models to estimate snow leopard density;
double-observer surveys to estimate the density of their main prey
species, the blue sheep Pseudois nayaur; and interview-based household
surveys to estimate livestock population and number of livestock killed
by snow leopards. The proportion of livestock lost per household was
seven times higher in Upper Dolpa, the site which had higher snow
leopard density (2.51 snow leopards per 100 km2) and higher livestock
density (17.21 livestock per km2) compared to Lower Dolpa (1.21 snow
leopards per 100 km2; 4.5 livestock per km2). The wild prey density was
similar across the two sites (1.81 and 1.57 animals per km2 in Upper and
Lower Dolpa, respectively). Our results suggest that livestock
depredation level may largely be determined by the abundances of the
snow leopards and livestock and predation levels on livestock can vary
even at similar levels of wild prey density. In large parts of the snow
leopard range, livestock production is indispensable to local
livelihoods and livestock population is expected to increase to meet the
demand of cashmere. Hence, we recommend that any efforts to increase
livestock populations or conservation initiatives aimed at recovering or
increasing snow leopard population be accompanied by better herding
practices (e.g., predator-proof corrals) to protect livestock from snow
Keywords: conservation conflict, human carnivore conflict, large mammalian carnivore, livestock depredation, Nepal, Shey Phoksundo National Park, snow leopard
Khatiwada, J. R., Chalise, M. K., & Kyes, R. (2007). Survey of Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) populations in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Nepal. Final report.
Abstract: This study was carried out in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Eastern Nepal from Feb – Nov 2007. We used the Snow Leopard Information Management System, SLIMS (second order survey technique) to determine the relative abundance of snow leopard in the upper part of KCA. Altogether, 36 transects (total length of 15.21 km) were laid down in the major three blocks of KCA. 104 Signs (77 scrapes, 20 feces, 2 Scent mark, 3 Pugmarks and 2 hairs) were recorded. Fixed-point count method was applied for blue sheep from appropriate vantage points. We counted total individual in each herd using 8x42 binocular and 15-60x spotting scope. A total of 43 herds and 1102 individuals were observed in the area. The standard SLIMS questionnaire was conducted to find out relevant information on livestock depredation patterns. Out of 35 households surveyed in KCA, 48% of herders lost livestock due to snow leopards. A total of 21 animals were reportedly lost due to snow leopards from August to September 2007.
Keywords: survey; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; populations; population; conservation; area; Nepal; Report; study; information; management; system; Slims; relative abundance; abundance; transects; transect; length; sign; scrapes; scrape; 20; feces; scent; pugmarks; hairs; Hair; using; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; patterns; herders; herder; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Animals; Animal
Khatiwada, J. R. & C., M.K. (2006). Status of snow leopard and conflict perception in Kangchenjunga Conservation Area, Eastern Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Zoology, 1(1), 1–8.
Abstract: Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA) is situated in the Taplejung district at the north-eastern region of Nepal. Livestock keeping is the main activity of people for making a living amidst a conflict with snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Each year snow leopard kills a number of livestock resulting significant economic losses for the poor people living in this remote area. Unless the people – snow leopard conflicts is well understood and appropriate conflict management activities are implemented, the long run co-existence between people and snow leopard –especially the existence of snow leopard in this part of the world–will be in question. This has now become an utmost important as the aspiration of the people for economic development has risen significantly and the area has been open to tourism. Study was done by counting snow leopard signs walking systematically in total 18 snow leopard sign transects covering 18.01 km in length in three sites, i.e. Lonak, Khambachen and Dudhpokhari of the Conservation Area. The average sign density was 12.63/km. The livestock depredation by snow leopard for one year (2005-06) was studied by interviewing the herders to understand the responsible and specific bio-physical and economic factors. The study revealed that sub-adult yaks were mostly hunted by snow leopard. Cattle's' winter (December-April) pastures are most vulnerable sites for predation. Presence of bushes, forest and boulders and rugged mountain crevices make good hides for snow leopard. The study also showed that a lax animal guarding system was significantly responsible for high livestock depredation by snow leopard. Blue sheep was observed by walking in selected trails and from vantage points. A total of 354 individual sheep of different age and sex of 14 different herds were recorded during the study period. The study showed that improvement in livestock guarding system should be adopted as the most important activity. However despite the importance of livestock in the KCA it is still not well understood why the herders neglect for proper livestock guarding. Proper guarding system required in winter pastures to reduce the depredation pressure.
Lama, R. P., Ghale, T. R., Suwal, M. K., Ranabhat, R., Regmi, G. R. (2018). First photographic evidence of Snow Leopard Panthera uncia (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) outside current protected areas network in Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Threatened Taxa, , 12086–12090.
Abstract: The Snow Leopard Panthera uncia is a rare top predator of high-altitude ecosystems and insufficiently surveyed outside of protected areas in Nepal. We conducted a rapid camera-trapping survey to assess the presence of Snow Leopard in the Limi valley of Humla District. Three individuals were recorded in two camera locations offering the first photographic evidence of this elusive cat outside the protected area network of Nepal. In addition to Snow Leopard, the Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur, Beech Marten Martes foina, Pika Ochotona spp. and different species of birds were also detected by camera-traps. More extensive surveys and monitoring are needed for reliably estimating the population size of Snow Leopard in the area. The most urgent needs are community-based conservation activities aimed at mitigating immediate threats of poaching, retaliatory killing, and rapid prey depletion to ensure the survival of this top predator in the Himalaya.
Keywords: Camera-trapping, conservation, Humla, livestock depredation, monasteries, non-timber forest products, retaliatory killing, Tibetan Buddhism.
Li, J., Yin, H., Wang, D., Jiagong, Z., Lu, Zhi. (2013). Human-snow leopard conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Tibetan Plateau. Biological Conservs, (166), 118–123.
Abstract: Conflicts between humans and snow leopards are documented across much of their overlapping distribution
in Central Asia. These conflicts manifest themselves primarily in the form of livestock depredation
and the killing of snow leopards by local herders. This source of mortality to snow leopards is a key conservation concern. To investigate human-snow leopard conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Tibetan Plateau, we conducted household interviews about local herders’ traditional use of snow leopard
parts, livestock depredation, and overall attitudes towards snow leopards. We found most respondents
(58%) knew that snow leopard parts had been used for traditional customs in the past, but they claimed
not in the past two or three decades. It may be partly due to the issuing of the Protection of Wildlife Law
in 1998 by the People’s Republic of China. Total livestock losses were damaging (US$ 6193 per household
in the past 1 year), however snow leopards were blamed by herders for only a small proportion of those
losses (10%), as compared to wolves (45%) and disease (42%). Correspondingly, the cultural images of
snow leopards were neutral (78%) and positive (9%) on the whole. It seems that human-snow leopard
conflict is not intense in this area. However, snow leopards could be implicated by the retaliatory killing
of wolves. We recommend a multi-pronged conservation program that includes compensation, insurance
programs, and training local veterinarians to reduce livestock losses.
Keywords: Panthera uncia, Human-wildlife conflict, Traditional use, Livestock depredation, Economic value, Cultural image, Attitude
Maheshwari, A., Midha, N., Chehrukupalli, A. (2014). Participatory Rural Appraisal and Compensation Intervention: Challenges and Protocols While Managing Large Carnivore–Human Conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal, 19, 62–71.
Abstract: When large carnivores cause socioeconomic losses in a community, conflict increases,
retaliatory killing of the carnivore can occur, and conservation efforts are undermined.
We focused on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and economic compensation
schemes as approaches for managing conflict. PRA is a tool for collecting data on
the large carnivore–human conflict and economic compensation schemes for those
affected negatively by carnivore presence. We reviewed published papers and reports
on large carnivore–human conflicts, PRA, and compensation schemes. This article
details insights into common pitfalls, key lessons learned, possible solutions including
new approaches for compensation and protocols to be followed while managing large
carnivore–human conflict. We hope to contribute to a meaningful dialogue between
locals, managers, and researchers and help in effective implementation of conservation
programs to mitigate large carnivore–human conflict around the protected areas.
Keywords: PRA, large carnivores–human conflict, compensation, livestock depredation, data collection protocols
Maheshwari, A., Sharma, D., Sathyakumar, S. (2013). Snow Leopard (Panthera Uncia) surveys in the Western Himalayas, India. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environmnet, 5(10), 303–309.
Abstract: We conducted surveys above 3000 m elevation in eight protected areas of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. These surveys provide new information on snow leopard in Uttarakhand on the basis of indirect evidence such as pugmark and scat. Snow leopard evidence (n = 13) were found between 3190 and 4115 m elevation. On an average, scats (n = 09) of snow leopard were found for every 56 km walked and pugmarks (n = 04) for every 126 km walked. Altogether, about 39% of the evidence were found on the hill-slope followed by valley floor (30%), cliff (15%) and 8% from both stream bed and scree slope. Genetic analysis of the scats identified three different individuals by using snow leopard specific primers. Snow leopard-human conflicts were assessed through questionnaire based interviews of shepherds from Govind Pashu Vihar Wildlife Sanctuary, Askot Wildlife Sanctuary and Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve areas of Uttarakhand. Surveys revealed that livestock depredation (mule, goat and sheep) is the only cause of snow leopard-human conflicts and contributed 36% of the diet of snow leopard. Blue sheep and rodents together comprised 36.4% of the total diet. We found that 68.1% of the surveyed area was used for pastoral activities in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh and 12.3% area was under tourism, defence and developmental activities.