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Green, M. J. B. (1987). Protected areas and snow leopards: their distribution and status. Tiger Paper, 14(4), 1–10.
Abstract: Considerable efforts have been devoted to conserving the snow leopard Panthera uncia in recent years, but progress has inevitably been slow due to the difficulties of studying a sparsely distributed, secretive and endangered species in often isolated mountainous terrain. Although knowledge about the species overall distribution in the highlands of Central Asia still remains fragmenatry, it is important to briefly examine all the available information in order to review measures taken to date to conserve the species through the protected areas network. The purpose of this paper is to examine the distribution and status of protected areas inhabited or visited by snow leopard in relation to the species' distribution and highlight deficiences in the present network.
Hussain, S. (2002). Nature and Human Nature: Conservation, Values and Snow Leopard.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: The failure of top-down environmental conservation practices gave rise to the so-called
`Community Based Conservation' or CBC approach. CBC promises to achieve the dual goals of
conserving nature and improving peoples' livelihoods. CBC programs also aim to involve local
communities as active partners in conservation efforts, and to use traditional knowledge and
local values in management of resources (Adams & Hulme 2001; Agrawal & Gibson 1999).
There are variations between different CBC programs; however, the underlying rationale of the
approach, common to all programs, is that introducing or changing economic incentives into the
conservation calculus of local people will bring about the behavioural change necessary for
successful conservation (Kellert et al 2000). Thus, the major emphasis in CBC programs is
conserving nature based on its utilitarian value. Since utilitarian value is measured in terms of
economics, hence the emphasis of CBCs on economic incentives in promoting conservation.
Recent evaluation of the CBC approach has shown that while local people may have benefited in
economic terms from the use of nature, no tangible improvements in biodiversity conservation
have occurred (Kellert et al 2000; Terborgh 1999). The disappointing performance of CBC
programs, which promised so much and yet have failed in practice to deliver, has recently lead to
a resurgence of the protectionist approach, calling for a renewed separation between the
conservation and human development objectives (Redford & Sanderson 2000; Terborgh 1999;
Oats 1999). Others, however, believe that the CBC approach has enormous potential, and that a
return to protectionist strategies would be disastrous, like `reinventing the square wheel'
(Brechin 2001; Wilhusen 2001). It is crucial that the flaws in the CBC approach are remedied if
there is to be any hope of a conservation agenda that does not conflict with the needs, aspirations
and interests of local people, and that therefore has a chance of having a long term, sustainable
McCarthy, T., Khan, J., Ud-Din, J., & McCarthy, K. (2007). First study of snow leopards using GPS-satellite collars underway in Pakistan. Cat News, 46(Spring), 22–23.
Abstract: Snow leopards (Uncia uncia) are highly cryptic and occupy remote inaccessible habitat, making studying the cats difficult in the extreme. Yet sound knowledge of the cat's ecology, behavior and habitat needs is required to intelligently conserve them. This information is lacking for snow leopards, and until recently so was the means to fill that knowledge gap. Two long-term studies of snow leopards using VHF radio collars have been undertaken in Nepal (1980s) and Mongolia (1990s) but logistical and technological constraints made the findings of both studies equivocal. Technological advances in the interim, such as GPS collars which report data via satellite, make studies of snow leopards more promising, at least in theory.
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2001). Visitor Attitude and Market Survey for Planning Community-based Tourism Initiatives in Rural Ladakh (Vol. SLC Field Series Document No. 2.). Los Gatos, California.
Abstract: Bounded by two of the world's highest mountain ranges, the Great Himalaya and the Karakoram, Ladakh is a land of exhilarating mountain landscapes, rocky gorges and a unique cultural heritage. It is also home to distinctive wildlife such as the snow leopard, blue sheep and Tibetan wild ass, all living in a unique high altitude desert ecosystem. Not surprisingly, Ladakh is becoming a sought after tourist destination for international and domestic visitors alike. Over the past two decades tourism has grown substantially, although erratically, with both positive and less positive results for Ladakh's environment and people. People are recognizing that it is important to act now and engage in an informed dialogue in order to conserve the natural and cultural resources on which the future of tourism and related incomes depend. The Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) is working in collaboration with local communities and nongovernmental organizations to foster co-existence between people and predators like the endangered snow leopard by reducing livestock depredation losses and improving household incomes in environmentally friendly, socially responsible and economically viable ways. Well-balanced tourism is one income generating option.
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). A Survey of Kathmandu-based Trekking Agencies: Market Opportunities for Linking Community-Based Ecotourism with the Conservation of Snow Leopard in the Annapurna Conservation Area. Report prepared for WWF-Nepal Programme (Vol. SLC Field Series Document No. 4). Los Gatos, California.
Abstract: In 2001 the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation (KMTNC), Annapurna Conservation Area (ACAP), Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) and WWF-Nepal initiated a collaborative project aimed at enhancing ecotourism in the Manang area, in ways that strengthen benefits to local communities while also protecting the environment and the local culture. Manang is known for its relatively dense snow leopard population, along with supporting good numbers of blue sheep, the endangered cat's principal prey through much of the Himalaya. However, snow leopards periodically kill many livestock, leading to retributive killing by herders along with other associated people-wildlife conflict. In order to encourage the local people to better co-exist with snow leopards and other wildlife, SLC, WWF-Nepal and ACAP agreed to explore ways of providing tourism benefits to local communities as an incentive to protect this rare predator and conserve its alpine habitat. Key in this regard is the possibility of developing locally guided nature treks, and accordingly, this survey was conducted in order to assess existing market opportunities and constraints to such ecotourism enterprise.