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Alexander, J. S., Agvaantseren, B., Gongor, E., Mijiddorj, T. N., Piaopiao, T., Stephen Redpath, S., Young, J., Mishra, C. (2021). Assessing the Effectiveness of a Community-based Livestock Insurance Program. Environmental Management, .
Allen, P., & Macray, D. (2002). Snow Leopard Enterprises Description and Summarized Business Plan.. Seattle: Islt.
Abstract: The habitat for both humans and snow leopards in Central Asia is marginal, the ecosystem fragile. The struggle for humans to survive has often, unfortunately, brought them into conflict with the region's dwindling snow leopard populations. Herders commonly see leopards as a threat to their way of life and well-being. Efforts to improve the living conditions of humans must consider potential impacts on the environment. Likewise, conservation initiatives cannot ignore humans as elements of the landscape with a right to live with dignity and pride. Based on these principles, the International Snow Leopard Trust has developed a new conservation model that addresses the needs of all concerned.
We call it Snow Leopard Enterprises..
Bagchi, S., Mishra, C., & Bhatnagar, Y. (2004). Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains. Animal Conservation, 7, 121–128.
Abstract: There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock species, we studied their resource use patterns over space, habitat and food dimensions in the pastures of Pin Valley National Park in the Spiti region of the Indian Himalaya. Species diet profiles were obtained by direct observations. We assessed the similarity in habitat use and diets of ibex and livestock using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. We estimated the influence of the spatial distribution of livestock on habitat and diet choice of ibex by examining their co-occurrence patterns in cells overlaid on the pastures. The observed co-occurrence of ibex and livestock in cells was compared with null-models generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The results suggest that goats and sheep impose resource limitations on ibex and exclude them from certain pastures. In the remaining suitable habitat, ibex share forage with horses. Ibex remained relatively unaffected by other livestock such as yaks, donkeys and cattle. However, most livestock removed large amounts of forage from the pastures (nearly 250 kg of dry matter/day by certain species), thereby reducing forage availability for ibex. Pertinent conservation issues are discussed in the light of multiple-use of parks and current socio-economic transitions in the region, which call for integrating social and ecological feedback into management planning.
Bhatnagar, Y. V., Stakrey, R. W., & Jackson, R. (2000). A Survey of Depredation and Related Wildlife-Human Conflicts in Hemis National Park, Ladakh (India) (Vol. xvi). Seattle: Islt.
Jackson, R. (1998). People-Wildlife Conflict Management in the Qomolangma Nature Preserve, Tibet. In W. Ning, D. Miller, L. Zhu, & J. Springer (Eds.), (pp. 40–46). Tibet's Biodiversity: Conservation and Management.. China: Tibet Forestry Department and World Wide Fund for Nature. China Forestry Publishing House.
Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to report on people-wildlife conflicts arising from crop damage and livestock depredation in the Qomolangma Reserve, with special reference to the management of protected and endangered mammals.
Jamtsho, Y., Katel, O. (2019). Livestock depredation by snow leopard and Tibetan wolf: Implications for herders� livelihoods in Wangchuck Centennial National Park, Bhutan. Springer Open, (9:1), 1–10.
Abstract: Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a serious problem in many parts of the world, and Bhutan�s Wangchuck Centennial
National Park (WCNP) is no exception. Located in the remote alpine areas of the eastern Himalaya, wildlife species
such as snow leopard (SL) and Tibetan wolf (TW) are reported to kill livestock in many parts of the Park. Such
depredation is believed to have affected the livelihoods of high-altitude herding communities, resulting in conflicts
between them. This study provides analysis on the extent of livestock depredation by wildlife predators such as SL
and TW and examines its implications for the livelihoods of herding communities of Choekhortoe and Dhur regions
of WCNP. Using semi-structured questionnaires, all herders (n = 38) in the study area were interviewed. The questions
pertained to livestock population, frequency of depredation and income lost due to depredation in the last five years
from 2012 to 2016. This study recorded 2,815 livestock heads in the study area, with an average herd size of 74.1 stock.
The average herd size holding showed a decreasing trend over the years, and one of the reasons cited by the herders
is depredation by SL and TW and other predators. This loss equated to an average annual financial loss equivalent to
10.2% (US$837) of their total per capita cash income. Such losses have resulted in negative impacts on herders�
livelihood; e.g. six herders (2012-2016) even stopped rearing livestock and resorted to an alternate source of cash
income. The livestock intensification programmes, including pasture improvement through allowing controlled
burning, and financial compensation, may be some potential short-term solutions to reduce conflict between herders
and predators. Issuing permits for cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) collection only to the herders and instilling the
sense of stewardship to highland herders may be one of the long-term solutions.
Shrestha, B. (2008). Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal.
Abstract: Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.
Suryawanshi, K. R., Bhatia, S., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Redpath, S., Mishra, C. (2014). Multiscale Factors Affecting Human Attitudes toward Snow Leopards and Wolves. Conservation biology, 00, 1–10.
Abstract: The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between
them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local
residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores,
but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined.We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus).
We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in
the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured
variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors.We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged.
Suryawanshi, K. R., Redpath, S. M., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Ramakrishnan, U., Chaturvedi, V., Smout, S. C., Mishra, C. Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards. Royal Society Open Science, , 1–11.
Abstract: An increasing proportion of the world�s poor is rearing livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing. Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory
killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern. A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey populations based on the assumption that the carnivores will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation, however, could either reduce or intensify with increases in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in carnivore abundance. We show that the extent of livestock predation by the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia
intensifies with increases in the density of wild ungulate prey, and subsequently stabilizes. We found that snow leopard density, estimated at seven sites, was a positive linear function of the density of wild ungulates�the preferred prey�and showed no discernible relationship with livestock density. We also found that modelled livestock predation increased with livestock density. Our results suggest that snow leopard conservation would benefit from an increase in wild ungulates, but that would intensify the problem of livestock predation for pastoralists. The potential benefits of increased wild prey abundance in reducing livestock predation
can be overwhelmed by a resultant increase in snow leopard populations. Snow leopard conservation efforts aimed atfacilitating increases in wild prey must be accompanied by greater assistance for better livestock
protection and offsetting the economic damage caused by carnivores.
Suryawanshi, K. R., Redpath, S., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Ramakrishnan, U., Chaturvedi, V., Smout, S. C., Mishra, C. (2017). Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards. Royal Society Open Science, , 1–11.
Abstract: An increasing proportion of the world�s poor is rearing
livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing.
Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory
killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern.
A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and
for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey
populations based on the assumption that the carnivores
will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation,
however, could either reduce or intensify with increases
in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in
carnivore abundance. We show that the extent of livestock
predation by the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia
intensifies with increases in the density of wild ungulate
prey, and subsequently stabilizes. We found that snow leopard
density, estimated at seven sites, was a positive linear
function of the density of wild ungulates�the preferred
prey�and showed no discernible relationship with livestock
density. We also found that modelled livestock predation
increased with livestock density. Our results suggest that
snow leopard conservation would benefit from an increase
in wild ungulates, but that would intensify the problem of
livestock predation for pastoralists. The potential benefits of
increased wild prey abundance in reducing livestock predation
can be overwhelmed by a resultant increase in snow leopard
populations. Snow leopard conservation efforts aimed at
facilitating increases in wild prey must be accompanied by greater assistance for better livestock
protection and offsetting the economic damage caused by carnivores.