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International Snow Leopard Trust. (2000). Snow Leopard News Spring 2000. Seattle, Wa: Islt.
Wegge, P., Shrestha, R., Flagstad, O. (2012). Snow leopard Panthera uncia predation on livestock and wild prey in a mountain valley in northern Nepal: implications for conservation management. Wildlife Biology, 18(10.2981/11-049), 131–141.
Abstract: The globally endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia is sparsely distributed throughout the rugged mountains in Asia.
Its habit of preying on livestock poses a main challenge to management. In the remote Phu valley in northern Nepal, we
obtained reliable information on livestock losses and estimated predator abundance and diet composition from DNA
analysis and prey remains in scats. The annual diet consisted of 42%livestock. Among the wild prey, bharal (blue sheep/
naur) Pseudois nayaur was by far the most common species (92%). Two independent abundance estimates suggested that
there were six snow leopards in the valley during the course of our study. On average, each snow leopard killed about one
livestock individual and two bharal permonth. Predation loss of livestock estimated fromprey remains in scats was 3.9%,
which was in concordance with village records (4.0%). From a total count of bharal, the only large natural prey in the area
and occurring at a density of 8.4 animals/km2 or about half the density of livestock, snow leopards were estimated to
harvest 15.1% of the population annually. This predation rate approaches the natural, inherent recruitment rate of this
species; in Phu the proportion of kids was estimated at 18.4%. High livestock losses have created a hostile attitude against
the snow leopard and mitigation measures are needed. Among innovative management schemes now being implemented
throughout the species’ range, compensation and insurance programmes coupled with other incentive measures are
encouraged, rather than measures to reduce the snow leopard’s access to livestock. In areas like the Phu valley, where the
natural prey base consists mainly of one ungulate species that is already heavily preyed upon, the latter approach, if
implemented, will lead to increased predation on this prey, which over time may suppress numbers of both prey and
Johansson, O., McCarthy, T., Samelius, G., Andren, H., Tumursukh, L., Mishra, C. (2015). Snow leopard predation in a livestock dominated landscape in Mongolia. Biological Conservation, 184, 251–258.
Abstract: Livestock predation is an important cause of endangerment of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) across
its range. Yet, detailed information on individual and spatio-temporal variation in predation patterns of
snow leopards and their kill rates of livestock and wild ungulates are lacking.
We collared 19 snow leopards in the Tost Mountains, Mongolia, and searched clusters of GPS positions
to identify prey remains and estimate kill rate and prey choice.
Snow leopards killed, on average, one ungulate every 8 days, which included more wild prey (73%) than
livestock (27%), despite livestock abundance being at least one order of magnitude higher. Predation on
herded livestock occurred mainly on stragglers and in rugged areas where animals are out of sight of herders.
The two wild ungulates, ibex (Capra ibex) and argali (Ovis ammon), were killed in proportion to their
relative abundance. Predation patterns changed with spatial (wild ungulates) and seasonal (livestock)
changes in prey abundance. Adult male snow leopards killed larger prey and 2–6 times more livestock
compared to females and young males. Kill rates were considerably higher than previous scat-based estimates, and kill rates of females were higher than kill rates of males. We suggest that (i) snow leopards
prey largely on wild ungulates and kill livestock opportunistically, (ii) retaliatory killing by livestock herders
is likely to cause greater mortality of adult male snow leopards compared to females and young
males, and (iii) total off-take of prey by a snow leopard population is likely to be much higher than previous
Maheshwari, A., Sathyakumar, S. (2019). Snow leopard stewardship in mitigating human-wildlife conflict in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, , 1–5.
Abstract: Among large predators, snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and co-predators (e.g., wolves
Canis lupus, lynx Lynx lynx) often cause economic losses, engendering animosity from
local communities in the mountain ecosystem across south and central Asia (Din et al.,
2017; Jackson & Lama, 2016; Maheshwari, Takpa, Kujur, & Shawl, 2010; Schaller, 2012).
These economic losses range from around US $50 to nearly $300 per household,
a significant sum given per capita annual incomes of $250 – $400 (Jackson & Wangchuk,
2004; Mishra, 1997). Recent efforts such as improved livestock husbandry practices
(predator-proof livestock corrals – closed night shelters with covered roof with wiremesh
and a closely fitting iron or wooden door that can be securely locked at night) and
community-based ecotourism (e.g., home stays, guides, porters, pack animals, campsites)
are providing alternative livelihood opportunities and mitigating large carnivores – human
conflict in the snow leopard habitats (Hanson, Schutgens, & Baral, 2018; Jackson, 2015;
Jackson & Lama, 2016; Vannelli, Hampton, Namgail, & Black, 2019). Snow leopard-based
ecotourism provides an opportunity to secure livelihoods and reduce poverty of the
communities living in ecotourism sites across Ladakh (Chandola, 2012; Jackson, 2015).
To understand the role of snow leopard-based ecotourism in uplifting the financial profile
of local communities, mitigating large carnivore – human conflict and eventually changing
attitudes towards large carnivores in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India, we compared
the estimated financial gains of a snow leopard-based ecotourism to stated livestock
predation losses by snow leopards and wolves.
McCarthy, T. (2000). Snow Leopards in Mongolia.
Jackson, R., Zongyi, W., Xuedong, L., & Yun, C. (1994). Snow Leopards in the Qomolangma Nature Preserve of Tibet Autonomous Region. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 85–95). Usa: Islt.
Xiao, L., Hua, F., Knops, J. M. H., Zhao, X., Mishra, C., Lovari, S., Alexander, J. S., Weckworth, B., Lu, Z. (2022). Spatial separation of prey from livestock facilitates coexistence of a specialized large carnivore with human land use. Animal Conservation, , 1–10.
Abstract: There is an increasing emphasis in conservation strategies for large carnivores on facilitating their coexistence with humans. Justification for coexistence strategies should be based on a quantitative assessment of currently remaining large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes. An essential part of a carnivore’s coexistence strategy has to rely on its prey. In this research, we studied snow leopards Panthera uncia whose habitat mainly comprises human-dominated, unprotected areas, to understand how a large carnivore and its primary prey, the bharal Pseudois nayaur, could coexist with human land use activities in a large proportion of its range. Using a combination of livestock census, camera trapping and wildlife surveys, across a broad gradient of livestock grazing intensity in a 363 000 km2 landscape on the Tibetan Plateau, we found no evidence of livestock grazing impacts on snow leopard habitat use, bharal density and spatial distribution, even though livestock density was 13 times higher than bharal density. Bharal were found to prefer utilizing more rugged habitats at higher elevations with lower grass forage conditions, whereas livestock dominated in flat valleys at lower elevations with higher productivity, especially during the resource-scarce season. These findings suggest that the spatial niche separation between bharal and livestock, together with snow leopards’ specialized bharal diet, minimized conflicts and allowed snow leopards and bharal to coexist in landscapes dominated by livestock grazing. In recent years, reduced hunting and nomadic herder’s lifestyle changes towards permanent residence may have further reinforced this spatial separation. Our results indicated that, for developing conservation strategies for large carnivores, the niche of their prey in relation to human land-use is a key variable that needs to be evaluated.
Jackson, R. (1992). SSC Plan for Snow Leopard.
Xu, A., Jiang, Z., Li, C., Guo, J., Da, S., Cui, Q., et al. (2008). Status and conservation of the snow leopard Panthera uncia in the Gouli Region, Kunlun Mountains, China (Vol. 42).
Abstract: The elusive snow leopard Panthera unica is a rare and little studied species in China. Over 1 March-15 May 2006 we conducted a survey for the snow leopard in the Gouli Region, East Burhanbuda Mountain, Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province, China, in an area of c. 300 km2 at altitudes of 4,000-4,700 m. We surveyed 29 linear transects with a total length of c. 440 km, and located a total of 72 traces (pug marks, scrapes and urine marks) of snow leopard along four of the transects. We obtained eight photographs of snow leopard from four of six camera traps. We also recorded 1,369 blue sheep, 156 Tibetan gazelles, 47 argali, 37 red deer and one male white-lipped deer. We evaluated human attitudes towards snow leopard by interviewing the heads of 27 of the 30 Tibetan households living in the study area. These local people did not consider that snow leopard is the main predator of their livestock, and thus there is little retaliatory killing. Prospects for the conservation of snow leopard in this area therefore appear to be good. We analysed the potential threats to the species and propose the establishment of a protected area for managing snow leopard and the fragile alpine ecosystem of this region. (c) 2008 Fauna & Flora International.
Seidensticker, J., & Lumpkin, S. (1996). The adaptable leopard; unfortunately it's no match for modern man. Wildlife Conservation, 99(3), 52.
Abstract: Abstract: Leopards' adaptability has become the species' vulnerability. The animals do not hesitate to eat rotting flesh and will come back repeatedly to their meal, if disturbed. People have taken advantage of this by lacing carcasses with poison. Leopards are moderate in size compared to other cats, are stealthy and can live in areas as diverse as rain forests and deserts.