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An E.S. (1980). The Chatkal Mountain Forest State Nature Reserve. The Kyzylsu Mountain Juniperous State Nature Reserve. The Miraki State Nature Reserve.
Abstract: It describes natural conditions, area, flora and fauna of the three mountain nature reserves in Uzbekistan: Chatkal, Kyzylsu, and Miraki. Siberian mountain ibex, roe deer, wild boar, Turkistan lynx, Tien Shan brown bear, fox, stone marten, Menzbier's marmot, porcupine, ermine, and Tien Shan souslik inhabit the Chatkal nature reserve. Snow leopard can be found in a top rocky part of the ridge. In the Kyzylsu nature reserve, there are 23 mammal species including, among the others, white-clawed bear, snow leopard, Iranian otter, Turkistan lynx, wild-boar, badger, porcupine, long-tailed marmot, hare-tolai, stone marten, Pamiri shrew, and ibex; in the Miraki nature reserve snow leopard, white-clawed bear, ibex, wolf, fox, porcupine, long-tailed marmot, hare-talai, forest dormouse, red pica, and a number of Red Data Book bird species are protected.
Andrienkov V.I. (1990). The Besh Aral nature reserve.
Abstract: It provides general information about the Besh Aral nature reserve (Kyrgyzstan), its physico-geographical characteristic, and description of flora and fauna. The predatory mammals are represented by 12 species. The rare predators are brown bear, snow leopard, lynx, and manul. Snow leopard inhabits the highlands of Chatkal depression and the upper-river Kara-Toko. In the past, snow leopards were seen more often.
Berezovikov N.N. (1990). The Markakol nature reserve.
Abstract: It provides general information about the Markakol nature reserve (Kazakhstan), physico-geographical characteristic, and description of flora and fauna. Snow leopards were noticed to enter the nature reserve from time to time, which seems to be very small for the predator to inhabit it permanently.
Bhatnagar, Y. V., Mathur, V. B., & McCarthy, T. (2002). A Regional Perspective for Snow Leopard Conservation In the Indian Trans-Himalaya.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: The Trans-Himalaya is a vast biogeographic region in the cold and arid rain-shadow of
the Greater Himalaya and is spread over three Indian states. From the conservation
standpoint this region has several unique characteristics. Unlike most other
biogeographic regions of the country, it has wildlife, including large mammals, spread
over the entire region. Another feature is that the harsh climate and topography
provides limited agricultural land and pastures, all of which are currently utilized by
people. The harsh environment has given rise to a specialized assemblage of flora and fauna in
the region that include the endangered snow leopard, a variety of wild sheep and goat,
Tibetan antelope, Tibetan gazelle, kiang and wild yak. The snow leopard is one of the
most charismatic species of the Trans-Himalaya. This apex predator, with a wide
distribution, has ecological importance and international appeal, and is eminently
suitable to be used as both a 'flagship' and an 'umbrella species' to anchor and guide
conservation efforts in the Trans-Himalayan region. Among the 10 Biogeographic Zones in the country, the Trans-Himalaya has a
comparatively large Protected Area (PA) coverage, with over 15,000 km2 (8.2 %) of
the geographical area under the network. In spite of this, the bulk of the large mammal
populations still exist outside the PAs, which include highly endangered species such
as snow leopard, chiru, wild yak, Ladakh urial, kiang and brown bear. Given the sparse resource availability in the Trans-Himalaya and the existing human
use patterns, there are few alternatives that can be provided to resource dependent
human communities in and around PAs. The existing PAs themselves pose formidable
conservation challenges and a further increase in their extent is impractical. The
problem is further compounded by the fact that some of the large PAs have unclear
boundaries and include vast stretches that do not have any direct wildlife values. These
issues call for an alternative strategy for conservation of the Trans-Himalayan tracts
based on a regional perspective, which includes reconciling conservation with
development. In this paper we stress that conservation issues of this region, such as competition for
forage between wild and domestic herbivores and human-wildlife conflicts need to be
addressed in a participatory manner. We suggest an alternative scheme to look at the
zonation of existing PAs and also the Trans-Himalayan region as a whole, to facilitate
better conservation in the region. Also, we emphasize that there is a vital need for
additional resources and a formal setup for regional planning and management under a
centrally sponsored scheme such as the 'Project Snow Leopard'.
Chichikin Yu.N., Y. A. I. (1969). Issyk Kul nature reserve.
Abstract: A description of the Issyk Kul nature reserve (Kyrgyzstan) is given and includes as follows: data of establishment, location, physic and geographic description, climate, flora and fauna. Snow leopard inhabited in Jety Oguz site of the nature reserve.
Chumakova A.V. (1980). The Kyzylsu, Miraki, and Markakol nature reserves.
Abstract: A description of the Kyzylsu, Miraki, and Markakol nature reserves is given and includes as follows: data of establishment, location, physic and geographic description, types of soils, climate, vegetation, altitude zones, and fauna. In the Kyzylsu nature reserve there are 28 mammal species; in Miraki 23, and in Mirkakol 39. Snow leopard can be found in all the three nature reserves.
Esipov V.M. (1969). Chatkal nature reserve.
Abstract: Presented is history of the Chatkal nature reserve's establishment, physic and geographic description, types of soils, climate, altitude zones, flora and fauna, historical monuments. Snow leopard is quiet rare species in nature reserve. Last years irbis's tracks and voice have been recorded in highly mountain sites of Maidantal part of Chatkal nature reserve.
Ferretti, F., Lovari, S. (2016). Predation may counteract climatic change as a driving force for movements of mountain ungulates.
Abstract: Temperature variations are expected to influence altitudinal movements of mountain herbivores and, in
turn, those of their predators, but relevant information is scarce. We evaluated monthly relationships
between temperature and altitude used by a large mountain-dwelling herbivore, the Himalayan tahr
Hemitragus jemlahicus, and its main predator, the snow leopard Panthera uncia, in an area of central
Himalaya for five consecutive years (2006–2010). In contrast to expectations, there was no significant
direct relationship between altitude of tahr sightings and temperature. The mean altitude of tahr sightings
decreased by c. 200 m throughout our study. As expected, snow leopard movements tracked those of tahr,
although the core area of the snow leopard did not move downwards. Tahr remained the staple of the
snow leopard diet: we suggest that the former did not move upwards in reaction to higher temperature
to avoid encounters with the latter. Avoidance of competition with the larger common leopard Panthera
pardus at lower altitudes could explain why snow leopards did not shift their core area downwards.
Apparently, interspecific interactions (predation; competition) influenced movements of Himalayan tahr
and snow leopards more than climatic variations.
Forrest, J. L., Wikramanayake, E., Shrestha, R., Areendran, G., Gyeltshen, K., Maheshwari, A., Mazumdar, S., Naidoo, R., Thapa, G. J., Thapa, K. (2012). Conservation and climate change: Assessing the vulnerability of snow leopard habitat to treeline shift in the Himalaya. Biological Conservation, 150, 129–135.
Abstract: Climate change is likely to affect the persistence of large, space-requiring species through habitat shifts,
loss, and fragmentation. Anthropogenic land and resource use changes related to climate change can also
impact the survival of wildlife. Thus, climate change has to be integrated into biodiversity conservation
plans. We developed a hybrid approach to climate-adaptive conservation landscape planning for snow
leopards in the Himalayan Mountains. We first mapped current snow leopard habitat using a mechanistic
approach that incorporated field-based data, and then combined it with a climate impact model using a
correlative approach. For the latter, we used statistical methods to test hypotheses about climatic drivers
of treeline in the Himalaya and its potential response to climate change under three IPCC greenhouse gas
emissions scenarios. We then assessed how change in treeline might affect the distribution of snow leopard
habitat. Results indicate that about 30% of snow leopard habitat in the Himalaya may be lost due to a
shifting treeline and consequent shrinking of the alpine zone, mostly along the southern edge of the range
and in river valleys. But, a considerable amount of snow leopard habitat and linkages are likely to remain
resilient to climate change, and these should be secured. This is because, as the area of snow leopard habitat
fragments and shrinks, threats such as livestock grazing, retaliatory killing, and medicinal plant collection
can intensify. We propose this approach for landscape conservation planning for other species
with extensive spatial requirements that can also be umbrella species for overall biodiversity.
2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Jafri, R. H., & Shah, F. (1994). The role of education and research in the conservation of snow leopard and its habitat in Northern Pakistan. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 273–277). Usa: Islt.