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Fox, J. L., Sinha, S. P., Chundawat, R. S., & Das, P. K. (1991). Status of the snow leopard Panthera uncia in Northwest India. Biological Conservation, 55(3), 283–298.
Abstract: Evidence of snow leopard presence was most abundant in C Ladakh, decreased southward toward the crest of the Himalaya, and was least on the S side of the main Himalaya. Prey populations, primarily blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and Asiatic ibex Capra ibex, were also more plentiful in the areas surveyed to the N of the main Himalaya. Perhaps 400 snow leopard occur throughout NW India. The stronghold of this species in India is apparently the trans- Himalayan ranges in Ladakh where new parks and reserves are being established, some in association with a snow leopard recovery programme of the state of Jammu and Kashmir and a 'Project Snow Leopard' of the central Indian government. Because of the generally low density of snow leopard, conservation measures must also be considered within the large areas of its range lying outside parks and reserves. -from Authors
Fox, J. L., Sinha, S.P., Chundawat, R.S. (1992). Activity patterns and habitat use of ibex in the Himalaya mountains of India. Journal of Mammology, 73(3), 527–534.
Schaller, G. B. (1987). Status of large mammals in the Taxkorgan Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Biological-Conservation, 42(1), 53–71.
Abstract: A status survey of large mammals was conducted in the W half of 14 000 km“SUP 2” Taxkorgan Reserve. Only one viable population of fewer than 150 Marco Polo sheep Ovis ammon poli survives; it appears to be augmented by adult males from Russia and Afghanistan during the winter rut. Asiatic ibex Capra ibex occur primarily in the western part of the reserve and blue sheep Pseudois nayaur – the most abundant wild ungulate – in the E and SE parts. The 2 species overlap in the area of contact. Counts revealed an average wild ungulate density of 0.34 animals km“SUP -2”. Snow leopard Panthera uncia were rare, with possibly 50-75 in the reserve, as were wolves Canis lupus and brown bear Ursus arctos. The principal spring food of snow leopard was blue sheep (60%) and marmot (29%). Local people have greatly decimated wildlife. Overgrazing by livestock and overuse of shrubs for fuelwood is turning this arid steppe habitat into desert. -from Authors
Suryawanshi, K. R., Bhatnagar, Y. V. B., Redpath, S., Mishra, C. (2013). People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 550–560.
Abstract: 1. Livestock depredation by large carnivores is an important conservation and economic concern
and conservation management would benefit from a better understanding of spatial variation
and underlying causes of depredation events. Focusing on the endangered snow leopard
Panthera uncia and the wolf Canis lupus, we identify the ecological factors that predispose
areas within a landscape to livestock depredation. We also examine the potential mismatch
between reality and human perceptions of livestock depredation by these carnivores whose
survival is threatened due to persecution by pastoralists.
2. We assessed the distribution of the snow leopard, wolf and wild ungulate prey through field
surveys in the 4000 km2 Upper Spiti Landscape of trans-Himalayan India. We interviewed local
people in all 25 villages to assess the distribution of livestock and peoples’ perceptions of the risk
to livestock from these carnivores. We monitored village-level livestock mortality over a 2-year
period to assess the actual level of livestock depredation. We quantified several possibly influential
independent variables that together captured variation in topography, carnivore abundance
and abundance and other attributes of livestock. We identified the key variables influencing livestock
depredation using multiple logistic regressions and hierarchical partitioning.
3. Our results revealed notable differences in livestock selectivity and ecological correlates of
livestock depredation – both perceived and actual – by snow leopards and wolves. Stocking
density of large-bodied free-ranging livestock (yaks and horses) best explained people’s threat
perception of livestock depredation by snow leopards, while actual livestock depredation was
explained by the relative abundance of snow leopards and wild prey. In the case of wolves,
peoples’ perception was best explained by abundance of wolves, while actual depredation by
wolves was explained by habitat structure.
4. Synthesis and applications. Our results show that (i) human perceptions can be at odds
with actual patterns of livestock depredation, (ii) increases in wild prey populations will intensify
livestock depredation by snow leopards, and prey recovery programmes must be accompanied
by measures to protect livestock, (iii) compensation or insurance programmes should
target large-bodied livestock in snow leopard habitats and (iv) sustained awareness
programmes are much needed, especially for the wolf.
Xu, F., Ma, M., & Wu, Y. - Q. (2006). Winter Daily Activity Rhythm and Time Budget of Ibex(Capra ibex).