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Ahmad, I., Hunter, D. O., & Jackson, R. (1997). A Snow Leopard and Prey Species Survey in Khunjerab National Park, Pakistan. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 92–95). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.
Keywords: Slims; Islt; Wwf; predator; prey; Pakistan; Khunjerab; parks; park; reserve; reserves; refuge; Marco-Polo-sheep; blue-sheep; surveys; survey; transect; sighn; markings; marking; scrape; spray; ibex; tracks; pug marks; feces; livestock; kill; herder; herders; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; international snow leopard trust; world wildlife fund; marco polo sheep; marco polo; pug; marks; protected area; protected areas; protected; area; areas; 2810
Ale, S. Conservation of the snow leopard in Nepal.
Keywords: Nepal; radio-collars; tracking; Annapurna-Conservation-Area; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; conservation; livestock; religion; folklore; blue-sheep; blue; sheep; browse; radio collars; radio; collar; collars; annapurna conservation area; annapurna; area; protected; areas; 4080
|Ale, S., Shrestha, B., and Jackson, R. (2014). On the status of Snow Leopard Panthera Uncia (Schreber 1775) in Annapurna, Nepal. Journal of Threatened Taxa, (6(3)), 5534–5543.|
Anonymous. (1999). Livestock Predation Control Workshop.
Keywords: Lahul-Spiti; Ladakh; Hemis; parks; reserves; refuge; protected-area; argali; abix; blue-sheep; wolves; distribution; status; population; poaching; hunting; trade; skins; livestock; pelts; coat; fur; bones; medicine; prey-depletion; herders; habitat; habitat-degradation; tourism; Tmi; Islt; predator; prey; conflict; compensation; trekking; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; depletion; degradation; international snow leopard trust; 3940
Aryal, A. (2009). Final Report On Demography and Causes of Mortality of Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve in Nepal.
Abstract: A total of 206 individual Blue sheep Pseudois nayaur were estimated in Barse and Phagune blocks of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) and population density was 1.8 Blue sheep/sq.km. There was not significant change in population density from last 4 decades. An average 7 animals/herd (SD-5.5) were classified from twenty nine herds, sheep per herds varying from 1 to 37. Blue sheep has classified into sex ratio on an average 75 male/100females was recorded in study area. The sex ratio was slightly lower but not significantly different from the previous study. Population of Blue sheep was seen stable or not decrease even there was high poaching pressure, the reason may be reducing the number of predators by poison and poaching which has
supported to increase blue sheep population. Because of reducing the predators Wolf Canis lupus, Wild boar population was increasing drastically in high rate and we can observed wild boar above the tree line of DHR. The frequency of occurrence of different prey species in scats of different predators shows that, excluding zero values, the frequencies of different prey species were no significantly different (ö2= 10.3, df = 49, p > 0.05). Most of the scats samples (74%) of Snow leopard, Wolf, Common Leopard, Red fox's cover one prey species while two and three species were present in 18% and 8%, respectively. Barking deer Muntiacus muntjak was the most frequent (18%) of total diet composition of common leopards. Pika Ochotona roylei was the most frequent (28%), and Blue sheep was in second position for diet of snow leopards which cover 21% of total diet composition. 13% of diet covered non-food item such as soil, stones, and vegetable. Pika was most frequent on Wolf and Red fox diet which covered 32% and 30% respectively. There was good positive relationship between the scat density and Blue sheep consumption rate, increasing the scat density, increasing the Blue sheep consumption rate. Blue sheep preference by different predators such as Snow leopard, Common leopard, Wolf and Red fox were 20%, 6%, 13% and 2% of total prey species respectively.
Keywords: Report; mortality; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; Dhorpatan; hunting; reserve; Nepal; biodiversity; research; training; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; conservation; program; population; Population-Density; density; densities; change; Sex; study; area; High; poaching; Pressure; reducing; number; predators; predator; poison; wolf; wolves; canis; Canis-lupus; lupus; wild; wild boar; prey; prey species; prey-species; species; scats; scat; value; fox; cover; deer; diet; leopards; pika; snow leopards; snow-leopards; soil; Relationship
Chundawat, R. S. (1992). Ecological Studies of Snow Leopard and its Associated Prey Species in Hemis High Altitude Park, Ladakh (J&K). Ph.D. thesis, University of Rajasthan, .
Keywords: India; Ladakh; snow-leopard; predator; prey; herder; blue-sheep; habitat; herders; Hemis; parks; reserves; refuge; protected-area; snow leopard; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; 980
Chundawat, R. S., & Rawat G.S. (1990). Food Habits of Snow Leopard in Ladakh, India.
Abstract: The snow leopard has remained little studied in the past, and most of the information available is either in the form of natural history or anecdotal notes. The inaccessibility of the terrain and its secretive habits make this one of the more difficult animals to study in the wild. In the past decade, several ecological surveys were conducted in India, Nepal, China and Mongolia, which gave us information on the status and distribution of snow leopard (Jackson, Mallon, Fox, Schaller, Chundawat) A detailed study in Nepal through light on its secretive habits ( Jackson and Ahlborn, 1989). Even then little is known about its feeding habits. The present paper discusses this aspect from a study which was part of a detailed study conducted on the ecology of snow leopard in India from October 1987 to Feburary 1990.
Keywords: India; Ladakh; behavior; predator; prey; livestock; blue-sheep; ibex; ungulates; marmots; parks; refuge; protected-area; reserves; diet; habitat; scat; kills; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; 970
Dhungel, S. (1994). Conservation of the Snow Leopard in Nepal. In J. L. Fox, & D. Jezing (Eds.), (pp. 47–50). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: Nepal; conservation; livestock; herder; herders; poaching; hunting; pelts; fur; coat; skin; distribution; status; behavior; predator; prey; breeding; Himalaya; park; parks; reserve; refuge; protected-area; biology; habitat; scent; spray; tracks; scrapes; home-range; mating; bharal; blue-sheep; goral; tahr; musk-deer; blue; sheep; browse; musk; deer; 3030
Fox, J. L., & Chundawat, R. S. (1997). Evaluation of Snow Leopard Sign Abundance in the Upper Indus Valley. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 66–74). Lahore, Pakistan: Islt.
Keywords: India; Ladakh; Jammu; Kashmir; transect; survey; habitat; park; parks; reserves; reserve; refuge; field-study; marks; scrape; scrapes; spray; marking; behavior; tracks; autocad; predator; prey; ibex; blue-sheep; marmot; livestock; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; 2730
|Fox, J. L., & Jackson, R. M. (2002). Blue Sheep and Snow Leopards in Bhutan and Trans-Himalayan Nepal: Recent Status Evaluations and Their Application to Research and Conservation.. Islt: Islt.|
Fox, J. L., Sinha, S. P., Chundawat, R. S., & Das, P. K. (1991). Status of the snow leopard Panthera uncia in Northwest India. Biological Conservation, 55(3), 283–298.
Abstract: Evidence of snow leopard presence was most abundant in C Ladakh, decreased southward toward the crest of the Himalaya, and was least on the S side of the main Himalaya. Prey populations, primarily blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and Asiatic ibex Capra ibex, were also more plentiful in the areas surveyed to the N of the main Himalaya. Perhaps 400 snow leopard occur throughout NW India. The stronghold of this species in India is apparently the trans- Himalayan ranges in Ladakh where new parks and reserves are being established, some in association with a snow leopard recovery programme of the state of Jammu and Kashmir and a 'Project Snow Leopard' of the central Indian government. Because of the generally low density of snow leopard, conservation measures must also be considered within the large areas of its range lying outside parks and reserves. -from Authors
Keywords: ibex; leopard; snow-leopard; blue-sheep; Asiatic-ibex; asia; Himalayas; India; Himalaya; Jammu; Kashmir; Ladakh; panthera; uncia; Pseudois; nayaur; Capra-ibex; parks; reserves; conservation; capra ibex; snow leopard; blue; sheep; browse; pseudois nayaur; capra; Asiatic; 790
|Ganguli-Lachungpa, U. (1999). Dead snow leopard (Uncia uncia) at Yabuk, Dongkung (5500M) in North Sikkim.|
Ghoshal, A., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Pandav, B., Sharma, K., Mshra, C. (2017). Assessing changes in distribution of the Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia and its wild prey over 2 decades in the Indian Himalaya through interviewbased occupancy surveys. Oryx, , 1–13.
Abstract: Understanding species distributions, patterns of
change and threats can form the basis for assessing the conservation
status of elusive species that are difficult to survey.
The snow leopard Panthera uncia is the top predator of the
Central and South Asian mountains. Knowledge of the distribution
and status of this elusive felid and its wild prey is
limited. Using recall-based key-informant interviews we estimated
site use by snow leopards and their primary wild
prey, blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and Asiatic ibex Capra
sibirica, across two time periods (past: �; recent:
�) in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. We
also conducted a threat assessment for the recent period.
Probability of site use was similar across the two time periods
for snow leopards, blue sheep and ibex, whereas for wild
prey (blue sheep and ibex combined) overall there was an
% contraction. Although our surveys were conducted in
areas within the presumed distribution range of the snow
leopard, we found snow leopards were using only % of
the area (, km). Blue sheep and ibex had distinct distribution
ranges. Snow leopards and their wild prey were not
restricted to protected areas, which encompassed only %
of their distribution within the study area. Migratory livestock
grazing was pervasive across ibex distribution range
and was the most widespread and serious conservation
threat. Depredation by free-ranging dogs, and illegal hunting
and wildlife trade were the other severe threats. Our
results underscore the importance of community-based, landscape-
scale conservation approaches and caution against reliance
on geophysical and opinion-based distribution maps that have been used to estimate national and global snow leopard ranges.
Hanson, J. H., Schutgens, M., Lama, R.P., Aryal, A., Dhakal, M. (2018). Local attitudes to the proposed translocation of blue sheep Pseudois nayaur to Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal. Fauna & Flora International, , 1–7.
Abstract: Translocations are an important tool for the conservation
of biodiversity, but although ecological feasibility
studies are frequently conducted prior to implementation,
social feasibility studies that consider how local communities
perceive such projects are less common. The translocation
of blue sheep Pseudois nayaur to Sagarmatha National
Park, Nepal, has been proposed, to reduce livestock depredation
by snow leopards Panthera uncia by providing an alternative
prey base in addition to the small population of
Himalayan thar Hemitragus jemlahicus. This study used
systematic sampling, a quantitative questionnaire and qualitative
interviews within the Park to provide data on the social
viability of the proposed translocation. Quantitative
analysis revealed moderate levels of support but qualitative
analysis suggested that there are significant concerns about
the proposal. In addition,multiple regression analysis found
that women and livestock owners were significantly less
supportive, although the model had low explanatory
power. Potential crop damage and competition for forage
were frequently cited as concerns, especially amongst
those with a high level of dependence on natural resources.
Given the mixed response to the proposed translocation of
blue sheep to the Everest region, alleviating the reservations
of local residents is likely to be key to any further consultation,
planning or implementation.
Keywords: Attitudes, blue sheep, human&wildlife conflict, Panthera uncia, Pseudois nayaur, Sagarmatha National Park, snow leopard, translocation
Harris, R. B. (1994). A note on snow leopards and local people in Nangqian County, Southern Qinghai Province. In J.L.Fox, & D. Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 79–84). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: China; Qinghai; attitude; local-peoples; herders; livestock; predator; prey; cub; capture; poaching; blue-sheep; Release; grazing; yaks; goats; horses; domestic; ungulates; hunting; bones; fur; pelts; coats; conservation; trapping; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; local; protected; area; peoples; 3250
Harris, R. B. (1994). Dealing with uncertainty in counts of mountain ungulates. In J.L.Fox, & D. Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 105–111). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: ungulates; blue-sheep; argali; tahr; ibex; prey; predator; status; population; asia; blue; sheep; browse; 3260
Harris, R. B., Pletscher, D. H., Loggers, C. O., & Miller, D. J. (1999). Status and trends of Tibetan plateau mammalian fauna, Yeniugou, China. Biological Conservation, 87, 13–19.
Abstract: We conducted surveys focusing on the unique and vulnerable ungulate species in Yeniugou, Qinghai province, China, during September 1997 to compare population estimates with those from the early 1990s. The status of two ungulate species appeared essentially unchanged since 1990ñ1992: wild yak Bos grunniens (about 1200 to 1300 animals) and Tibetan gazelle Procapra picti- caudata. The status of one ungulate species, the white-lipped deer Cervus albirostris, appeared to improve, from a very few to close to 100. We are unsure how the status of the Tibetan wild ass Equus kiang compares with that of the early 1990s. The status of three species declined during the period: blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and argali Ovis ammon declined slightly (possibly due to a weather event), and the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni declined dramatically (probably due primarily to poaching), from over 2000 estimated in 1991 to only two seen during 1997. Poaching of antelope has become a serious problem throughout the Tibetan plateau in recent years, and this survey provides evidence that an entire subpopulation can disappear (either through mortality, movement away from human disturbance or a combination) within a relatively short time-frame. That some species (e.g. wild yak, white-lipped deer) continue to thrive in Yeniugou is heartening, but even they remain vulnerable to market-driven poaching.#1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: argali; blue sheep; China; conservation; Qinghai; survey; Tibetan antelope; Tibetan gazelle; Tibetan wild ass; white-lipped deer; wild; yak; Yeniugou; 5210
|Jackson, R., & Fox, J. L. Snow Leopard and Prey Species Workshop in Bhutan.|
Jackson, R., & Fox, J. L. (1997). Snow Leopard Conservation: Accomplishments and Research Priorities. In R.Jackson, & A.Ahmad (Eds.), (pp. 128–144). Pakistan: Islt.
Keywords: Slims; Islt; zoos; zoo; captivity; genetics; home-range; predator; prey; parks; park; reserve; reserves; refuge; Mongolia; China; India; Nepal; Khunjerab; surveys; survey; transect; habitat; scrap; marking; spray; Myanmar; Burma; blue-sheep; ibex; conservation; ecology; management; livestock; herders; Dna; Icimod; Himalaya; protected-area; scrape; blue; sheep; browse; international snow leopard trust; home range; home; range; protected area; protected areas; protected; area; areas; 2900
Jackson, R., Zongyi, W., Xuedong, L., & Yun, C. (1994). Snow Leopards in the Qomolangma Nature Preserve of Tibet Autonomous Region. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 85–95). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: Qomolangma; protected-area; parks; preserves; refuge; Nepal; Tibet; China; field-study; blue-sheep; scrapes; sprays; scat; feces; pug-marks; sign; transects; interviews; herders; livestock; predation; predator; traps; trapping; habitat; status; distribution; threats; hunting; pelts; skins; fur; coats; poaching; bones; medicine; Cites; conflict; trade; conservation; management; protected area; protected; area; areas; protected areas; field study; field; study; pug marks; blue; sheep; browse; pug; marks; 3490
Jackson, R. M. (1996). Home Range, Movements and Habitat use of Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) in Nepal. Ph.D. thesis, University of London, University of London.
Abstract: Home ranges for five radio-tagged snow leopards (Uncia uncia) inhabiting prime habitat in Nepal Himalaya varied in size from 11-37 km2. These solitary felids were crepuscular in activity, and although highly mobile, nearly 90% of all consecutive day movements involved a straight line distance of 2km or less. No seasonal difference in daily movement or home range boundry was detected. While home ranges overlapped substancially, use of common core spaces was temporally seperated, with tagged animals being located 1.9 km or more apart during the smae day. Spatial analysis indicated that 47-55% of use occured within only 6-15% of total home area. The snow leopards shared a common core use area, which was located at a major stream confuence in an area where topography, habitat and prey abundance appeared to be more favorable. A young female used her core area least, a female with two cubs to the greatest extent. the core area was marked significantly more with scrapes, Faeces and other sighn than non-core sites, suggesting that social marking plays an important role in spacing individuals. Snow leopards showed a strong preference for bedding in steep, rocky or broken terrain, on or close to a natural vegetation or landform edge. linear landform features, such as a cliff or major ridgeline, were preferred for travelling and day time resting. This behavior would tend to place a snow leopard close to its preferred prey, blue sheep (Psuedois nayaur), which uses the same habitat at night. Marking was concetrated along commonly travelled routes, particularly river bluffs, cliff ledges and well defined ridgelines bordering stream confluences--features that were most abundant within the core area. Such marking may facilitate mutual avoidance, help maintain the species' solitary social structure, and also enable a relatively high density of snow leopard, especially within high-quality habitat.
Keywords: Nepal; blue-sheep; predator; prey; home-range; behavior; capture; telemetry; habitat; marking; activity; movement; tracking; blue; sheep; browse; home range; home; range; 990
Jafri, R. H., & Shah, F. (1994). The role of education and research in the conservation of snow leopard and its habitat in Northern Pakistan. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 273–277). Usa: Islt.
Keywords: Pakistan; Khunjerab; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; education; ibex; Marco-Polo-sheep; hunting; predator; prey; diet; marmot; activity; Nepal; Chitral-Gol; war; land-use; climate; blue-sheep; home-range; Disease; blue; sheep; browse; Marco-Polo; protected; area; areas; land use; land; 3120
Kattel, B., & Bajimaya, S. S. (1997). Status and Conservation of Snow Leopard in Nepal. In R.Jackson, & A.Ashiq (Eds.), (pp. 21–27). Lahore, Pakistan: International Snow Leopard Trust.
Keywords: Nepal; conservation; status; management; predator; prey; blue-sheep; distribution; ecology; habitat; parks; park; reserves; reserve; refuge; livestock; herders; Dogs; herder; yak; goat; hunting; poaching; bone; trade; fur; pelt; pelts; coats; bones; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; protected area; 2280
Khatiwada, J. R., Chalise, M. K., & Kyes, R. (2007). Survey of Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) populations in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Nepal. Final report.
Abstract: This study was carried out in the Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA), Eastern Nepal from Feb – Nov 2007. We used the Snow Leopard Information Management System, SLIMS (second order survey technique) to determine the relative abundance of snow leopard in the upper part of KCA. Altogether, 36 transects (total length of 15.21 km) were laid down in the major three blocks of KCA. 104 Signs (77 scrapes, 20 feces, 2 Scent mark, 3 Pugmarks and 2 hairs) were recorded. Fixed-point count method was applied for blue sheep from appropriate vantage points. We counted total individual in each herd using 8x42 binocular and 15-60x spotting scope. A total of 43 herds and 1102 individuals were observed in the area. The standard SLIMS questionnaire was conducted to find out relevant information on livestock depredation patterns. Out of 35 households surveyed in KCA, 48% of herders lost livestock due to snow leopards. A total of 21 animals were reportedly lost due to snow leopards from August to September 2007.
Keywords: survey; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; populations; population; conservation; area; Nepal; Report; study; information; management; system; Slims; relative abundance; abundance; transects; transect; length; sign; scrapes; scrape; 20; feces; scent; pugmarks; hairs; Hair; using; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; patterns; herders; herder; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Animals; Animal
Khatiwada, J. R. & C., M.K. (2006). Status of snow leopard and conflict perception in Kangchenjunga Conservation Area, Eastern Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Zoology, 1(1), 1–8.
Abstract: Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA) is situated in the Taplejung district at the north-eastern region of Nepal. Livestock keeping is the main activity of people for making a living amidst a conflict with snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Each year snow leopard kills a number of livestock resulting significant economic losses for the poor people living in this remote area. Unless the people – snow leopard conflicts is well understood and appropriate conflict management activities are implemented, the long run co-existence between people and snow leopard –especially the existence of snow leopard in this part of the world–will be in question. This has now become an utmost important as the aspiration of the people for economic development has risen significantly and the area has been open to tourism. Study was done by counting snow leopard signs walking systematically in total 18 snow leopard sign transects covering 18.01 km in length in three sites, i.e. Lonak, Khambachen and Dudhpokhari of the Conservation Area. The average sign density was 12.63/km. The livestock depredation by snow leopard for one year (2005-06) was studied by interviewing the herders to understand the responsible and specific bio-physical and economic factors. The study revealed that sub-adult yaks were mostly hunted by snow leopard. Cattle's' winter (December-April) pastures are most vulnerable sites for predation. Presence of bushes, forest and boulders and rugged mountain crevices make good hides for snow leopard. The study also showed that a lax animal guarding system was significantly responsible for high livestock depredation by snow leopard. Blue sheep was observed by walking in selected trails and from vantage points. A total of 354 individual sheep of different age and sex of 14 different herds were recorded during the study period. The study showed that improvement in livestock guarding system should be adopted as the most important activity. However despite the importance of livestock in the KCA it is still not well understood why the herders neglect for proper livestock guarding. Proper guarding system required in winter pastures to reduce the depredation pressure.