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Abdunazarov B.B. (1994). Rare and endangered animal species in the Kashkadaraya region.
Abstract: 41 percent of all vertebrate species listed in the Red Book of the Uzbek SSR (18 mammal species, 29 bird, 6 reptile, and 8 fish species) inhabit the Kashkadarya region. The mammals are Tien Shan brown bear, Central Asian otter, Turkistan lynx, snow leopard, and goitered gazelle. Nesting bird fauna includes the following species: black stork, Turkistan white stork, short toed eagle, booted eagle, golden eagle, bearded vulture, black vulture, griffon vulture, saker falcon, houbara bustard, and eagle owl. Migrating and wintering bird species are dalmatian pelican, rose pelican, mute swan, osprey, tawny eagle, imperial eagle, pin-tailed sandgrouse; and possibly Bonnli's eagle and Barbary falcon that have not been seen here since 1950-s. Rare reptiles are represented by two species: desert monitor and Central Asian cobra.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Kashkadarya region; rare species; mammals; birds; reptiles; fishes; snow leopard.; 5760; Russian
Alibekov L.A. (1978). Fauna.
Abstract: Represented is fauna of big salt-marsh valleys and pre-Kyzylkum area, a tier of low desert foothill valleys, tiers of lowland ridges, deeply cut hillside midlands, and cold highlands of the watershed ridge-top tier in the Jizak region of Uzbekistan. The highest tier of the Jizak region, a habitat of snow leopard, Menzbier's marmot, Siberian ibex, sometimes wild Tajik sheep coming from the East, bear ascending from lower elevations, and wolf in summer, has the most adverse living conditions. Central Asia argali and stone marten inhabit in central part of the North Nurata ridge.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Jizak region; fauna; landscape; biotic factors; fishes; reptiles; birds; insects; mammals; snow leopard.; 5970; Russian
An E.S. (1980). The Chatkal Mountain Forest State Nature Reserve. The Kyzylsu Mountain Juniperous State Nature Reserve. The Miraki State Nature Reserve.
Abstract: It describes natural conditions, area, flora and fauna of the three mountain nature reserves in Uzbekistan: Chatkal, Kyzylsu, and Miraki. Siberian mountain ibex, roe deer, wild boar, Turkistan lynx, Tien Shan brown bear, fox, stone marten, Menzbier's marmot, porcupine, ermine, and Tien Shan souslik inhabit the Chatkal nature reserve. Snow leopard can be found in a top rocky part of the ridge. In the Kyzylsu nature reserve, there are 23 mammal species including, among the others, white-clawed bear, snow leopard, Iranian otter, Turkistan lynx, wild-boar, badger, porcupine, long-tailed marmot, hare-tolai, stone marten, Pamiri shrew, and ibex; in the Miraki nature reserve snow leopard, white-clawed bear, ibex, wolf, fox, porcupine, long-tailed marmot, hare-talai, forest dormouse, red pica, and a number of Red Data Book bird species are protected.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; mountain nature reserves; Western Tien Shan; Pamir-Alai; Hissar ridge; Chatkal nature reserve; Kyzylsu nature reserve; Miraki nature reserve; relief; climate; soil; flora; fauna; mammals; birds; reptiles; fishes; territorial protection; rare species; snow leopard.; 6020; Russian
Aromov B. (2004). Hissar state nature reserve.
Abstract: Presented is history of the Hissar nature reserve's establishment, physic and geographic description, types of soils, flora and fauna The 28 species of mammals, 103 nested birds, 19 amphibians and reptiles and 2 fishes are presented in nature reserve. Number of snow leopard assessed as 2-3 families, bear 130 individuals, wild boar 460, Turkestan lynx 90,ibex 1700 individuals.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Hissar nature reserve; mammals; birds; amphibians; reptiles; number; snow leopard; Lynx; bear; wild boar; ibex.; 6090; Russian
Artykbaev P.K. (1981). Fauna.
Abstract: Uzbekistan's fauna includes 97 mammal species (insectivorous six species, Cheiroptera 20, hare type species 2, rodents 37, ungulates 8); 379 bird species, of which 184 are passerine; 58 reptile species; 69 fish species. Species inhabiting sand deserts, clay deserts, and mountains are listed. The following mammal species inhabit the alpine zone: bear, snow leopard, ermine, weasel, wolf, Siberian mountain ibex, wild sheep, Menzbier's marmot and long-tailed marmot, voles, red pica. The following game species are listed in the Red Book: bear, leopard, lynx, snow leopard, cheetah, caracal, otter, marbled polecat, goitered gazelle, Bukhara deer, marchor, and wild sheep (there are two wild sheep sub-species in the country Bukhara and Kizilkum wild sheep).
Keywords: Uzbekistan; fauna; game species; mammals; birds; reptiles; desert; geographical zones; mountain semi desert; mountain steppe; alpine zone; rare species; snow leopard.; 6100; Russian
Bobrinskiy N.A. (1967). Mountains of Central Asia.
Abstract: It provides a zoogeographical description of Central Asia mountains: Tien Shan (west and east), Pamir, the Turkestan and Hissar ridges, and ruinous mountains in Kyzylkum. Distribution of various animal species over the area under study is described. Data concerning Central Asia sheep, ibex, and snow leopard in the alpine meadow zone, and data concerning the otter (in the Tupalang river basin) and grey partridge is presented. The author noted that generally fauna of Tien Shan, Hissar, and Pamir is similar to that of Inner Asia. The other type of fauna more similar to that of Transcaucasia is typical for Kopet-Dag.
Keywords: Middle Asia; mountain; tien shan; Pamir; Hissar ridge; Turkestan ridge; Kopet-Dag ridge; Animals; plants; Issyk-Kul lake; Sary-Chelek; spiders; birds; lizards; marmots; wild sheep; ibex; snow leopard.; 6330; Russian
Bogdanov O.P. (1989). The Chatkal state mountain forest biosphere reserve. The Hissar nature reserve.
Abstract: In a popular form it describes the origination, nature and fauna of the Chatkal nature reserve. Habitats and ecology of Menzbier's marmot, water-snake, forest dormouse, and fox are described. It also indicates mammal and bird species listed in the Red Book of the USSR black vulture, griffon vulture, bearded vulture, golden eagle, snow leopard, Turkestan lynx, and Tien-Shan brown bear. There are 23 mammal species in the Hissar nature reserve. Ecology of snow leopard and Siberian mountain ibex is described. In the year 1977, 15 Turkestan lynx, about 25 Tien-Shan brown bears, five to seven snow leopards, and 120 150 Siberian mountain ibex were counted in the nature reserve.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Chatkal nature reserve; Hissar nature reserve; birds; mammals; amphibians; reptiles; plants; rare species; numerous species; snow leopard.; 6370; Russian
Chernogaev E.A. (1978). Materials on rare and protected species of the Kyzylsu nature reserve.
Abstract: This survey was being done (May, 1975 February, 1976) in the new Kyzylsu nature reserve, established in 1975. Before 1975, the anthropogenic pressure was mainly represented by overgrazing and unregulated hunting. Provided are data on bird species (bearded vulture, Himalayan vulture, griffon vulture, golden eagle, and Himalayan snow cock), mammal species (long-tailed marmot, Indian porcupine, brown bear, lynx, snow leopard, and Siberian ibex).
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Kyzylsu nature reserve; rare species; birds; mammals; snow leopard; poaching; human influence.; 6430; Russian
Chichikin Yu.N. (1968). Ways to enrich game fauna of Kyrgyzstan.
Abstract: In Kyrgyzstan, there are 106 mammal and 111 bird species. 40 mammal and 70 bird species are game ones. Resources of some of them were undermined due to over-hunting. Moral, goitered gazelle, pheasant have disappeared; argali, roe deer, and wild boar have become not numerous. In order to protect game fauna and regulate hunting of wild animals, hunting was prohibited at lake Issyk-Kul (1948); hunting for moral, goitered gazelle, swan, bar-headed goose, pheasant, snow leopard, bear, and argali was prohibited too (1952, 1956 and 1958).
Keywords: Kyrgyzstan; game species; birds; mammals; snow leopard.; 6450; Russian
Epifanov V.M. (1968). Fauna.
Abstract: There are three fish species, two amphibian species, nine reptile, 97 bird species, and 23 mammal species, including snow leopard, in the Chatkal reserve. A list of animals and their brief description is provided.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Western Tien Shan; Chatkal nature reserve; fishes; amphibians; reptiles; birds; mammals; snow leopard.; 6540; Russian
Farrington, J. (2005). A Report on Protected Areas, Biodiversity, and Conservation in the Kyrgyzstan Tian Shan with Brief Notes on the Kyrgyzstan Pamir-Alai and the Tian Shan Mountains of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and China. Ph.D. thesis, , Kyrgyzstan.
Abstract: Kyrgyzstan is a land of towering mountains, glaciers, rushing streams, wildflowercovered meadows, forests, snow leopards, soaring eagles, and yurt-dwelling nomads. The entire nation lies astride the Tian Shan1, Chinese for “Heavenly Mountains”, one of the world's highest mountain ranges, which is 7439 m (24,400 ft) in elevation at its highest point. The nation is the second smallest of the former Soviet Central Asian republics. In
spite of Kyrgyzstan's diverse wildlife and stunning natural beauty, the nation remains little known, and, as yet, still on the frontier of international conservation efforts. The following report is the product of 12 months of research into the state of conservation and land-use in Kyrgyzstan. This effort was funded by the Fulbright Commission of the U.S. State Department, and represents the most recent findings of the author's personal environmental journey through Inner Asia, which began in 1999. When I first started my preliminary research for this project, I was extremely surprised to learn that, even though the Tian Shan Range has tremendous ecological significance for conservation efforts in middle Asia, there wasn't a single major international conservation organization with an office in the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Even more surprising was how little awareness there is of conservation issues in the Tian Shan region amongst conservation workers in neighboring areas who are attempting to preserve similar species assemblages and ecosystems to those found in the Tian Shan. Given this lack of awareness, and the great potential for the international community to make a positive contribution towards improving the current state of biodiversity conservation in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia, I have summarized my findings on protected areas and conservation in Kyrgyzstan and the Tian Shan of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Xinjiang in the chapters below. The report begins with some brief background information on geography and society in the Kyrgyz Republic, followed by an overview of biodiversity and the state of conservation in the nation, which at the present time closely parallels the state of conservation in the other former Soviet Central Asian republics. Part IV of the report provides a catalog of all major protected areas in Kyrgyzstan and the other Tian Shan nations, followed by a list of sites in Kyrgyzstan that are as yet unprotected but merit protection. In the appendices the reader will find fairly comprehensive species lists of flora and fauna found in the Kyrgyz Republic, including lists of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, trees and shrubs, wildflowers, and endemic plants. In addition, a
draft paper on the history and current practice of pastoral nomadism in Kyrgyzstan has been included in Appendix A. While the research emphasis for this study was on eastern Kyrgyzstan, over the course of the study the author did have the opportunity to make brief journeys to southern Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang. While falling short of being a definitive survey of protected areas of the Tian Shan, the informational review which
follows is the first attempt at bringing the details of conservation efforts throughout the entire Tian Shan Range together in one place. It is hoped that this summary of biodiversity and conservation in the Tian Shan will generate interest in the region amongst conservationists, and help increase efforts to protect this surprisingly unknown range that forms an island of meadows, rivers, lakes, and forests in the arid heart of Asia.
Keywords: Report; protected; protected areas; protected area; protected-areas; protected-area; areas; area; biodiversity; conservation; Kyrgyzstan; Tian; Tian-Shan; shan; Pamir-Alai; mountains; mountain; Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; China; environmental; study; former; soviet; central; Central Asia; asia; land; Forest; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; Chinese; range; republic; wildlife; International; research; land-use; land use; recent; inner; project; ecological; Middle; Middle Asia; Organization; awareness; region; preserve; species; ecosystems; ecosystem; potential; community; Biodiversity conservation; Xinjiang; information; Kyrgyz; Kyrgyz-Republic; protection; flora; fauna; mammals; birds; reptiles; amphibians; endemic; plants; plant; history; Southern; survey; protect; river; heart
Khan, A. (2004). Snow Leopard Occurrence in Mankial Valley, Swat: Final report.
Abstract: Mankial is a sub-valley of the Swat Kohistan. Temperate ecosystem of the valley is intact to a greater extent, which provides habitat to a variety of species of plants, animals and birds. Snow leopard is reported from the valley. To confirm its occurrence, the HUJRA (Holistic Understanding for Justified Research and Action), conducted the study titled “Snow Leopard Survey in Mankial Valley, district Swat, NWFP”. The author provided technical support, while ISLT (The International Snow Leopard Trust) funded the project under its small grants program. The World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan (WWF-Pakistan) and the Mankial Community Organization (MCO) facilitated surveys under the project. Surveys revealed that Snow leopard visits parts of the Mankial valley in winter months. Information from the local community shows that Snow leopard remains in the Serai (an off-shoot of the Mankial Valley) from early winter to early spring. Intensive surveys of the prime snow leopard winter habitat in the valley found several snow leopard signs including pugmarks, feces, and scrapes. The study also found occurrence of prey species through indirect evidence though. However, information from the local community confirmed that in the recent past there was a good population of markhor in the valley, which is now reduced to less than 50, mostly due to hunting and habitat disturbance. Hunting is part of the local culture and lifestyle. During winter months hunting pressure is low, as most of the local community migrates to warmer plain areas than Mankial Valley. However, those who live in the area lop oak branches for feeding their livestock and cut trees for burning, in addition to hunting prey species of snow leopard. This has resulted in stunted oak vegetation in most of the lower reaches of the valley and decline of the markhor population.
Keywords: snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; valley; Report; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; ecosystem; habitat; species; plants; plant; Animals; Animal; birds; research; action; study; survey; Support; Islt; community; Organization; surveys; winter; information; local; sign; pugmarks; feces; scrapes; scrape; prey; prey species; prey-species; recent; population; markhor; hunting; Culture; Pressure; areas; area; feeding; livestock; burning; decline
Kolbintsev V.G. (1990). The role of the Aksu-Djabagly nature reserve in the vertebrate animals gene pool conservation (Vol. Part 3.).
Abstract: The Aksu-Djabagly nature reserve is a real guarantor for conservation of gene pool of five species Tien Shan bear, golden eagle, bearded vulture, Blue whistling thrush, and probably Central Asia stone marten. To strengthen the role of the nature reserve in the rare species conservation it is necessary to extend its area to a number of additional land plots belonging to forestries.
Keywords: Kazakhstan; Aksu-Jabagly nature reserve; gene pool; fauna; rare species; mammals; birds; snow leopard.; 7170; Russian
Kovshar A.F. (1982). Preservation of gene pool of rare and endangered animal species.
Abstract: The rare species are protected in six nature reserves in Kazakhstan, including 9 mammals, 29 birds, and one reptile species. More than 20 rare and endangered species inhabiting Kazakhstan cannot be met within the nature reserves. The point is to establish a network of state nature reserves, particularly in steppe and desert area of the country.
Keywords: Kazakhstan; gene pool; rare species; mammals; ungulates; carnivores; snow leopard; rodents; birds; reptiles; amphibians; fishes.; 7360; Russian
Kovshar A.F. (1982). A problem of rare and endangered animal species in Kazakhstan.
Abstract: The Red Book of the Kazakh SSR includes 91 rare and endangered vertebrate animal species: 30 mammal, 48 bird, eight reptile, one amphibian, and four fish species. 26 species (Menzbier's marmot, marten species, lynx, snow leopard, and other species) became rare because of a direct anthropogenic pressure. The prohibition of hunting, conservation and rehabilitation of their habitats, reproduction in enclosures and preservation of some species' genomes is a way that would conserve rare species, the authors believe.
Keywords: Kazakhstan; rare species; Red Data book; mammals; birds; reptiles; amphibians; fishes; snow leopard; researching; conservation; hunting prohibition; habitat restoration; genome conservation.; 7350; Russian
Kovshar A.F. (1969). Aksu Jabagly nature reserve.
Abstract: In territory of reserve and surrounding foothills 238 birds, 42 mammals, 9 reptiles, 2 amphibious and 2 fishes are registered. The mammal: argali, wild ibex, roe deer, red deer, a wild boar, snow leopard, steppe cat, a stone marten, ermine, red fox, badger, long-tailed marmot and Menzbier's marmot. Irbis is rare in reserve. Ibexes (numerous spesies) and wild sheep are main prey of the snow leopard. With the beginning of ibexes migration snow leopards follow them.
Keywords: Kazakhstan; Aksu Jabagly nature reserve; fauna; mammals; birds; reptiles; amphibians; fishes; snow leopard; prey species.; 7330; Russian
Kydyraliev A.K. (1970). Some animal species' habitat alteration in the Central Tien Shan (Vol. Part 1.).
Abstract: Irrigation and drainage activity in Tien Shan led some bird species to disappear. Number of species to build their nests in tree holes has dropped. Mongolian sandpiper and black-bellied sand grouse disappeared in the steppe areas. Great bustard, formerly nesting in this area, can now be rarely seen only in migration. The direct anthropogenic influence resulted in shrinkage of game animal and bird populations such as moral, goitered gazelle, argali, snow leopard, and stone marten.
Keywords: Kyrgyzstan; tien shan; human influence; water conservation activity; decline; range; number; birds; mammals; game species; moral; argali; snow leopard.; 7540; Russian
Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association. (2010). Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010.
Abstract: In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,
zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as
reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial
operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,
Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from
September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made
the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that
administrative units have been increased and territories of
administrative units have been diminished. There have been four
provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation
limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than
ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.
Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of
species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in
banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,
Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing
in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently
necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures
into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across
hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.
Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national
cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of
cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of
Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report "Result of to unify
popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of
agricultural cooperatives" in the fourth meeting by the Central
Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December
16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of
1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %
of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals
amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total
animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article
mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in
Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such
number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into
five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult
animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally
in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food
of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main
nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the
soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of
secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of
ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt
one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for
domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big
game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and
hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.
Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give
prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly
it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15
USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially
picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow
leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack
domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of
ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting
wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't
consider it had been right since it was natural event. However
population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought
and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has
never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million
heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in
its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of
domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild
animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards
correctly with low costs.
Keywords: nature; tourism; surveys; survey; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; attack; domestic; Animals; Animal; illegal; illegal hunting; hunting; territory; province; 2010; hunt; 1990; movements; movement; pasture; desert; number; species; birds; river; mountain; hunters; hunter; recent; government; structure; management; national; central; people; Report; gobi; Gobi Desert; reproduction; Adult; meat; food; ibex; wild; wild sheep; sheep; marmot; nutrition; schools; population; use; local; big; big game; big-game; game; 310; mountains; wolves; wolf; Seasons; times; zones; global; Mongolia; 40; history; ecology
Persianova L.A. (1980). About the Red Book listing rare and endangered animal and plant species.
Abstract: The Red Book includes data of rare and endangered fauna and flora species. The species are sub-divided into five categories by threat. Volume 1 of the Red Book of the Uzbek SSR includes 22 mammal species, 31 bird species, five reptile and five fish species. Among them there are endemic species and species included in the International Red list. Snow leopard is referred to a category of endangered species.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Red Data book; flora; fauna; rare species; categories of threat; mammals; birds; reptiles; fishes; snow leopard.; 7870; Russian
Petrov B.M. (1963). Game fauna in western extremities of the Tien Shan and specific issues of its enrichment and use.
Abstract: It provides a brief description of game fauna in the West Tien Shan including the Ugam, Pskem, Chatkal, and Kurama ridges, characterized by high diversity and practical value of predatory mammal species (including snow leopard), Artiodactyls, rodents and birds. There arises a question of game fauna enrichment and game management regulating on this territory.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Western Tien Shan; game species; hunting farm; birds; mammals; snow leopard.; 7890; Russian
Proskuryakov M.A. (1969). Almaty nature reserve.
Abstract: A description of the Almaty nature reserve is given and includes as follows: data of establishment, location, physic and geographic description, types of soils, climate, flora and fauna. In the nature reserve there are 39 mammals and 117 birds. Snow leopard, wild ibex, brown bear, lynx, wild boar, red deer, wolf, fox etc. inhabited in the nature reserve.
Keywords: Kazakhstan; Almaty nature reserve; landscape; flora; fauna; birds; mammals; snow leopard.; 8010; Russian
Rashek V.A. (1980). The Chatkal State nature reserve. Aksu Jabagly nature reserve.
Abstract: It describes history of the Chatkal and Aksu Jabagly nature reserves' establishment and provides data concerning hydrography, soils, climate, landscapes, altitude zoning, flora and fauna, and main aspects of scientific work.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; Kazakhstan; Chatkal nature reserve; Aksu Jabagly nature reserve; landscape; flora; fauna; birds; mammals; rare species; snow leopard.; 8040; Russian
Shrestha, B. (2008). Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal.
Abstract: Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.
Keywords: project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; abundance; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; resource; predators; predator; ecological; impact; region; community; structure; number; research; population; status; density; densities; wild; prey species; prey-species; species; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; game; birds; diet; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; awareness; co-existence; ungulates; ungulate; Human; using; areas; area; monitoring; transect; Hair; identification; scat; attack; patterns; sighting; 1760; populations; birth; Male; Female; young; domestic; domestic livestock; 120; scats; yak; Dog; pika; wildlife; Seasons; winter; horse; study; cover; land; predation; Pressure; development; strategy; threatened; threatened species; threatened-species; conflicts; conflict; people; control; husbandry; compensation; reintroduction; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; free ranging
Sosnovskiy I.P. (1981). Backstage of the Zoo.
Abstract: It describes the Moscow Zoo services organization in a popular form; examples from every day work of the technical staff and zoo technical and veterinary service, animals' behaviour outside the cages are given.
Keywords: Russia; Moscow Zoo; zootechnik service; veterinary service; reptiles; birds; mammals; carnivores; snow leopard.; 8300; Russian
Sultanov G.S. (1984). The Red Book of Uzbekistan and animal protection issues.
Abstract: Due to development of new lands and increased anthropogenic pressure animals are displaced from their habitats. Intense poaching caused dying away a number of animals such as Turan tiger, moral, and kulan in Uzbekistan at the end of 19th beginning of 20th century. The endangered species are marchor, cheetah, lynx, snow leopard, caracal, and cobra. Species put on the verge of a total extermination are included in the national Red Data Book (22 mammal species, 31 bird species, five reptile and five fish species). The introduction of some species such as raccoon, European fallow deer, nylghau, and chinchilla was unsuccessful.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; rare species; habitats; poaching; introduction; re-introduction; mammals; birds; reptiles; fishes; snow leopard.; 8360; Russian