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Ale, S., & Whelan, C. (2008). Reappraisal of the role of big, fierce predators.
Abstract: The suggestion in the early 20th century that top predators were a necessary component of ecosystems because they hold herbivore populations in check and promote biodiversity was at Wrst accepted and then largely rejected. With the advent of Evolutionary Ecology and a more full appreciation of direct and indirect effects of top predators, this role of top predators is again gaining acceptance. The previous views were predicated upon lethal effects of predators but largely overlooked their non-lethal effects. We suggest that
conceptual advances coupled with an increased use of experiments have convincingly demonstrated that prey experience costs that transcend the obvious cost of death. Prey species use adaptive behaviours to avoid predators, and these behaviours are not cost-free. With predation risk, prey species greatly restrict their use of available habitats and consumption of available food resources. Effects of top predators consequently cascade down to the trophic levels below them. Top predators, the biggies, are thus both the targets of and the means for conservation at the landscape scale.
Burrard, G. (1925). Big Game Hunting in the Himalayas and Tibet. London: H. Jenkinns.
Formozov A.N. (1952). Tiger and snow leopard.
Abstract: Over the last decades tiger, leopard and snow leopard were fully exterminated in many areas, where they formerly were common species and now became very rare ones. Few leopards can still be found in Caucasus, Copet-Dag (Turkmenistan) and south of Primorskiy krai. Irbis is remaining a common species only in the difficult-of-access highland areas of Tien Shan and very rare in the Altai. Tiger traces are sometimes found in the Amudarya river valley and in the taiga Sihote-Alinya in the Far East.
Formozov A.N. (1989). Tiger. Leopard. Snow Leopard.
Abstract: The number of large cats is reducing. These animals are hold out in the most difficult of access places. During long time snow leopard was a poorly known animal. The situation was changed with developing of mountain tourism and mountaineering. It's necessary to reduce the capturing snow leopards for zoological gardens.
Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association. (2010). Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010.
Abstract: In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,
zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as
reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial
operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,
Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from
September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made
the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that
administrative units have been increased and territories of
administrative units have been diminished. There have been four
provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation
limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than
ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.
Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of
species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in
banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,
Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing
in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently
necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures
into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across
hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.
Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national
cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of
cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of
Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report "Result of to unify
popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of
agricultural cooperatives" in the fourth meeting by the Central
Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December
16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of
1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %
of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals
amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total
animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article
mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in
Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such
number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into
five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult
animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally
in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food
of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main
nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the
soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of
secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of
ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt
one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for
domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big
game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and
hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.
Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give
prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly
it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15
USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially
picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow
leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack
domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of
ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting
wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't
consider it had been right since it was natural event. However
population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought
and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has
never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million
heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in
its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of
domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild
animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards
correctly with low costs.
Sloane, A., Kelly, C., McDavitt, S., & Marples, N. (1998). Big cats in captivity: a quantitative analysis of enrichment. Adv.Etho, 33, 43.
Abstract: Studies on three species of big cats at Dublin Zoo have led to firm conclusions about the effects of certain forms of enrichment, some of which will be presented here. Lions, jaguars, and snow leopards were studied over two years and their behaviours quantified using focal animal sampling during selected hours during daylight. By comparison of these activity budgets with and without the enrichments being present, it was possible to identify the exact behavioural changes caused by each enrichment method, and to quantify these changes. In this contribution we present results showing that the presence of a platform in both lion and jaguar enclosures dramatically reduced stereotypic pacing behaviour. We will demonstrate that the effects of short term enrichment devices may have a wide range of effects on behaviours which outlast the presence of the stimulus. For instance scents added to the cage, or food/play items such as horse hides, hidden fish or ice-blocks often reduce pacing and increase resting later in the day, even after the cats have ceased using the enrichment items. This reduction in pacing and increase in resting time often meant that the amount of the enclosure used per hour was actually reduced with the presence of new stimuli, as result opposite to what might have been expected. The results of these studies will be discussed in relation to effective animal management.
Stockley, G. (1928). Big Game Shooting In the Indian Empire. London: Constable.
Stockley, G. (1936). Stalking in the Himalayas and Northern India. London: Herbert Jenkins.
Xu, F., Ming, M., Yin, S. -jing, & Mardan. (2005). Snow Leopard Survey in Tumor Nature Reserve, Xingjiang (Vol. 24).
Abstract: Snow leopard survey was conducted in Oct-Nov 2004 at Tumor National Natural Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Because of its special living style, the snow leopard is difficult to observe by sight. Signs left by snow leopard become a good index to prove the existance of the big cat. There are mainly five kinds of signs, footprints, fectes, claw rakes and urine spray. From them we can know the distribution, probably population and habitat selection of snow leopard. This time in Tumor we investigated 5 difference places: Pochenzi in Mozat River area, Boxidun in Little Kuzbay River area, Yinyer in Tomur River area, Kurgan and Taglak in Quiong Tailan River area. 42 transects were run in this trip and a total of 57 signs found. Among them, footprints amounted to 71.9%, scrapes 21.1%, and feces 7.0%. The results showed that the big cat existed in Yinyer, Kurgan and Taglak areas and liked to select their habitat in the valley and didn't like to live in barren areas.