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Ishunin G.I. (1984). Hunting and nature conservation in Uzbekistan (history and current status).
Abstract: Origination of fauna complexes in Uzbekistan from the Mustier period to present time is described. The remains of brown bear, cave hyena, wolf, fox, corsac, stone marten, badger, and snow leopard were found in cave Amankutan (western extremities of the Zaravshan ridge). Cattle breeding and farming has begun since mesolite; cave bear, Stenon horse, Pleistocene donkey, camel and aurochs dropped from the region's fauna, while marchor and striped hyena moved to the Hissar ridge, Babatag and Kugitang mountains from south; jackal, chaus, tiger, and Iranian otter settled along the river valleys. In the Neolith and Bronze Age cattle breeding and farming continued to develop, while hunting was less important. Mass hinting for animals in the time of Alexander the Great, Chingiz Khan, and Babur, the ruler of Fergana, is described. Mass extermination of kulan, goitered gazelle, saiga, and other game species also took place later more than 12,000 saigas were killed during one hunt at the end of 19th century in the Volga region. Animals also die from natural disasters the “djut”. Data concerning a current status of goitered gazelle, saiga, Bukhara deer, marchor, Severtsev's sheep, and urial is given.
Keywords: Uzbekistan; origin; fauna; fossils; mesolite; late Stone Age; the Bronze Age; hunting; agriculture; stock-raising; natural calamity; conservation; hunting farm; snow leopard.; 6930; Russian
Kanderian, N., Lawson, D., Zahler, P. (2011). Current status of wildlife and conservation in Afghanistan. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 68(3), 281–298.
Abstract: Afghanistan’s position in latitude, geography and at the intersection of three biogeographic realms has resulted in a surprising biodiversity. Its wildlife includes species such as the snow leopard, Asiatic black bear, Marco Polo sheep, markhor and greater flamingo. Principal threats include high levels of deforestation, land encroachment and hunting for food and trade. Continuing security issues have also made it difficult to monitor species abundance and population trends. Over the last decade, however, survey efforts have provided the first collection of species and habitat data since the late 1970s. Initial findings are enabling the Government and rural communities to begin implementing important conservation measures. This process has included policy development and protected area planning, promoting alternative livelihoods and responsible community management, and continuing research into the status of biodiversity in the field.
Keywords: Afghanistan; Biodiversity; Deforestation; Hunting; Illegal trade; Agriculture; Livelihood; Governance; Survey; Training
|Koshkarev, E., & Vyrypaev, V. (2000). The snow leopard after the break-up of the Soviet Union. Cat News, 32, 9–11.|
Raghavan, B., Bhatnagar, Y., & Qureshi, Q. (2003). Interactions between livestock and Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei); final report.
Abstract: The Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei) is a highly endangered animal (IUCN Red List 2000) listed in the Appendix 1 of CITES and Schedule 1 of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Its numbers had been reduced to a few hundred individuals in the 1960s and 70s through hunting for trophies and meat (Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). However, with the protection bestowed by the IWPA 1972, and resultant decrease in hunting, the population seems to have shown a marginal increase to about 1000-1500 individuals in its range in Ladakh (Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). Although the species had in the past, been able to coexist with the predominantly Buddhist society of Ladakh, the recent increase in the population of both humans and their livestock has placed immense pressures on its habitat (Shackleton 1997, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). This is especially important considering that the Ladakh urial habitat coincides with the areas of maximum human activity in terms of settlements, agriculture, pastoralism and development, in Ladakh (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). Increased developmental activities such as construction of roads, dams, and military bases in these areas have also increased the access to their habitat. This has consequently made the species more vulnerable to the threats of poaching and habitat destruction (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2002). Pressure from increased livestock grazing is one of the major threats faced by the species today (Shackleton 1997, Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, IUCN Red List 2000 Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). In the impoverished habitat provided by the Trans-Himalayas, there is great competition for the scarce resources between various animal species surviving here (Fox 1996, Mishra 2001). The presence of livestock intensifies this competition and can either force the species out of its niche (competitive exclusion) by displacing it from that area or resource, or lead to partitioning of resources between the species, spatially or temporally, for coexistence (Begon et al. 1986, Gause 1934).
Keywords: Interactions; interaction; livestock; Ladakh; urial; ovis; endangered; Animal; Iucn; 2000; Cites; indian; wildlife; protection; number; 1960; 70; hunting; meat; fox; Chundawat; population; range; species; recent; humans; Human; Pressure; habitat; areas; area; human activity; activity; activities; agriculture; pastoralism; development; dam; Base; threats; threat; poaching; grazing; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya; Competition; resource; presence; India; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; program