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Ale, S. B. (1994). Snow Leopard in Remote Districts of Nepal (Vol. xii). Seattle: Islt.
Jackson, R. M., Ahlborn, G., Gurung, M., & Ale, S. (1996). Reducing livestock depredation losses in the Nepalese Himalaya. Proc.Vertebr.Pest Conf, 17, 241–247.
Abstract: The authors investigated livestock depredation patterns of snow leopards on the northern slopes of the Himalayans near the villages of Manang and Khangshar, Nepal. Information is discussed on the relationships among livestock loss, endangered species management, public relations/conservation issues, and cooperative efforts among institutions involved in the decision making process. A plan is devised for alleviating livestock loss and protecting endangered species in the area. pcp
Oli, M. K. (1994). Snow leopards and local human population in a protected area: a case study from the Nepalese Himalaya. In J.L.Fox, & D.Jizeng (Eds.), (pp. 51–64). Usa: International Snow Leopard Trust, Seattle, Washington.
Thapa, K. (2005). Is their any correlation between abundance of blue sheep population and livestock depredation by snow leopards in the Phu Valley, Manang District, Annapurna Conservation Area? Final report.
Abstract: This study was undertaken in the Phu valley of Manang district in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal,
Spring, 2004 and 2005. I used the Snow Leopard Management Information System (“second order” survey technique), to determine
the relative abundance of snow leopards in delineated areas in Phu valley. Transects routes were plotted by
randomly selected feasible landforms such as along ridgelines, cliff bases and river bluffs where snow
leopards sign is likely to be found. Altogether, 16 transects (total length of 7.912 km) were laid down (mean
transect length=0.495 km). They revealed, 54 sign sites (both relic and non-relic) and altogether 88 signs (72
scrapes, 11 feces, 3 scent mark, 2 pugmarks and 1 hair) were recorded (6.8 site/km and 11.1 signs/km). There
were 61.1% non-relic and 38.9% relic sites. The density of snow leopards in Phu Valley may be 4-5 snow
leopards/100 kmý.It was found that the Ghyo block had the highest sign density (13.6 mean sign item/km)
and Phu block (9.8 mean sign item/km) and the lowest in Ngoru block (3.9 mean sign item/km.). For blue sheep, direct count method was applied from different appropriate vantage points (fixed-point
count). I counted total individuals in each herd and classified all individuals whenever possible, using 8 X24
binocular and 15-60x spotting scope. A total 37 blue sheep herds and 1209 individuals were observed in
192.25 kmý of the study area (blue sheep density, 6.3 kmý). Average herd size was 32.68. Herd size varied
from 1 to 103 animals (the largest so far recorded). The average sex ratio male to female for the entire survey
area was 0.67. Recruitment rate was 47.13. The ratio of yearlings to adult female was 0.45. In Ghyo block
had total 168 blue sheep (area, 44.08 km2 or 3.8/ km2 i.e. 137.2 kg/ kmý). Blue sheep density in Ngoru block
showed 4.7/km2 (area, 65.47 km2). Highest density of blue sheep among three blocks was recorded in Phu
block, 8.9/km2 (or 320 kg/km2) in its 82.70 km2 area. A standard questionnaire was designed, and interviews conducted for relevant information was collected on
livestock depredation patterns (total household survey). Out of 33 households surveyed, 30 reported that they
had livestock depredation by the snow leopard in 2004. Altogether 58 animals were reportedly lost to snow
leopards (3.1% of the total mortality). Out of the estimated standing available biomass (1, 83,483kg) in the
Phu valley at least 2220 kg or 1.3% of the total livestock biomass was consumed by snow leopards in the
year of our study (2004). It was estimated that in the Phu valley annually 1.8 animals were lost per household
to snow leopards. This means approx. Rs.413560 (US$ 5,908) is lost annually in the valley (US$
179/household/annum). Ghyo block, had the highest animals loss (53.4%), followed by Phu block (36.2%)
and Ngoru block (10.3%) to snow leopards. There is positive correlation among the densities of blue sheep, relative abundance of the snow leopard and
livestock depredation. Blue sheep is the main prey species of the snow leopard in Phu valley and its
conservation therefore matters to reduce livestock depredation. A general patterns appears here that shows
that blue sheep (prey) abundance determine snow leopard (predator) abundance and that livestock
depredation by snow leopards may be minimal where there is good population of blue sheep, and vice versa.
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). A Survey of Kathmandu-based Trekking Agencies: Market Opportunities for Linking Community-Based Ecotourism with the Conservation of Snow Leopard in the Annapurna Conservation Area. Report prepared for WWF-Nepal Programme (Vol. SLC Field Series Document No. 4). Los Gatos, California.
Abstract: In 2001 the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation (KMTNC), Annapurna Conservation Area (ACAP), Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) and WWF-Nepal initiated a collaborative project aimed at enhancing ecotourism in the Manang area, in ways that strengthen benefits to local communities while also protecting the environment and the local culture. Manang is known for its relatively dense snow leopard population, along with supporting good numbers of blue sheep, the endangered cat's principal prey through much of the Himalaya. However, snow leopards periodically kill many livestock, leading to retributive killing by herders along with other associated people-wildlife conflict. In order to encourage the local people to better co-exist with snow leopards and other wildlife, SLC, WWF-Nepal and ACAP agreed to explore ways of providing tourism benefits to local communities as an incentive to protect this rare predator and conserve its alpine habitat. Key in this regard is the possibility of developing locally guided nature treks, and accordingly, this survey was conducted in order to assess existing market opportunities and constraints to such ecotourism enterprise.
The Snow Leopard Conservancy. (2002). Visitor Satisfaction and Opportunity Survey, Manang, Nepal: Market Opportunities for Linking Community-Based Ecotourism with the Conservation of Snow Leopards in the Annpurna Conservation Area. Report prepared for WWF-Nepal Programme (Vol. SLC Field Document Series No 3).
Abstract: For the past two decades, the Manang or Nyeshang Valley has become one of the most popular
trekking routes in Nepal, attracting over 15,000 trekkers annually (Ale, 2001). The 21-day
circular trek takes the visitor from the lush southern slopes of the Annapurna massif around to
its dry northern slopes more reminiscent of Tibet, through a landscape of spectacular mountain
scenes, interesting villages and diverse cultures. The Manang region also offers prime habitat
for the endangered snow leopard, supporting an estimated 4.8 – 6.7 snow leopards per 100 sq.
km (Oli 1992). This high density has been attributed to the abundance of blue sheep, the snow
leopard's primary large prey species across the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau.