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Brown, J. L., Wasser, S. K., Wildt, D. E., & Graham, L. H. (1994). Comparative Aspects of Steroid Hormone Metabolism and Ovarian Activity in Felids, Measured Noninvasively in Feces. Biol Reprod, 51(4), 776–786.
Abstract: Noninvasive fecal assays were used to study steroid metabolism and ovarian activity in several felid species. Using the domestic cat (Felis catus) as model, the excretory products of injected [14C]estradiol (E2) and [14C]progesterone (P4) were determined. Within 2 days, 97.0 +/- 0.6% and 96.7 +/- 0.5% of recovered E2 and P4 radioactivity, respectively, was found in feces. E2 was excreted as unconjugated estradiol and estrone (40%) and as a non-enzyme- hydrolyzable conjugate (60%). P4 was excreted primarily as non-enzyme- hydrolyzable, conjugated metabolites (78%) and as unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. A simple method for extracting fecal steroid metabolites optimized extraction efficiencies of the E2 and P4 excretion products (90.1 +/- 0.8% and 87.2 +/- 1.4%, respectively). Analysis of HPLC fractions of extracted fecal samples from the radiolabel-injected domestic cats revealed that E2 immunoreactivity coincided primarily with the unconjugated metabolized [14C]E2 peak, whereas progestogen immunoreactivity coincided with a single conjugated epimer and multiple unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. After HPLC separation, similar immunoreactive E2 and P4 metabolite profiles were observed in the leopard cat (F. bengalensis), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), and snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that changes in fecal E2 and P4 metabolite concentrations reflected natural or artificially induced ovarian activity. For example, severalfold increases in E2 excretion were associated with overt estrus or exogenous gonadotropin treatment, and elevated fecal P4 metabolite concentrations occurred during pregnant and nonpregnant (pseudopregnant) luteal phases. Although overall concentrations were similar, the duration of elevated fecal P4 metabolites during pseudopregnancy was approximately half that observed during pregnancy. In summary, steroid metabolism mechanisms appear to be conserved among these physically diverse, taxonomically related species. Results indicate that this hormone-monitoring approach will be extremely useful for elucidating the hormonal regulatory mechanism associated with the reproductive cycle, pregnancy, and parturition of intractable and endangered felid species.
Keywords: Animal; Carbon; Radioisotopes; Carnivora; Cats; Chromatography; High; Pressure; Liquid; Comparative Study; Estradiol; metabolism; Estrone; feces; chemistry; Female; Ovary; physiology; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Pseudopregnancy; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; browse; non; government; gov't; us; 170
|Chaudhuri, S., Mukherjee, S. K., Chatterjee, A., & Ganguli, J. L. (1992). Isolation of P multocida F-3, 4 from a stillborn snow leopard. Vet Rec, 130(2), 36.|
Gosselin, S. J., Loudy, D. L., Tarr, M. J., Balistreri, W. F., Setchell, K. D., Johnston, J. O., et al. (1988). Veno-occlusive disease of the liver in captive cheetah. Vet Pathol, 25(1), 48–57.
Abstract: Liver tissues from 126 captive cheetah were evaluated by light microscopy and histochemistry; eight animals were evaluated by electron microscopy. The main hepatic lesion, a vascular lesion resembling veno- occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver and characterized by subendothelial fibrosis and proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells in the central veins, was seen in 60% of the sexually mature cheetah. Although this hepatic vascular lesion was seen in cheetah as young as 1 year of age, the most severe lesions, usually associated with liver failure, were found in cheetah between the ages of 6 and 11. There was no sex predisposition, and in approximately 40% of the VOD cases, liver disease was not suspected clinically or at necropsy. VOD was found in other felidae, especially in the snow leopard. High levels of vitamin A in livers, as well as in diets of the cheetah, could be a contributing factor in the development of VOD in some groups of cheetah.
Keywords: Animal; Feed; analysis; Carnivora; Cheetahs; Female; Hepatic; Veno; Occlusive; Disease; pathology; veterinary; Histocytochemistry; Liver; ultrastructure; Male; Microscopy; Electron; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; Vitamin A; browse; non; us; gov't; government; 280
Hast, M. H. (1989). The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats. J Anat, 163, 117–121.
Abstract: Dissections were made of the larynges of 14 species of the cat family, with representative specimens from all genera. It was found that the vocal folds of the larynx of genus Panthera (with the exception of the snow leopard) form the basic structure of a sound generator well- designed to produce a high acoustical energy. Combined with an efficient sound radiator (vocal tract) that can be adjusted in length, a Panthera can use its vocal instrument literally to blow its own horn with a 'roar'. Also, it is proposed that laryngeal morphology can be used as an anatomical character in mammalian taxonomy.
Keywords: Animal; Carnivora; anatomy; histology; Cats; Comparative; study; Female; Larynx; physiology; Lions; Male; Vocal; Cords; vocalization; browse; 260
Inayat, S. (2002). Role of Women In Conservation of Snow Leopard In Pakistan.. Islt: Islt.
Abstract: Generally speaking, men and women are the two wheels of the same vehicle. Women's
participation and involvement in the conservation of snow leopards is as indispensable as it is to
any other discipline. Unfortunately, their dual role was not exploited and so the involvement of
women in nature conservation is considered almost inappropriate and not up to the mark.
Mountainous people still live with their centuries old traditions and culture. Although with the
passage of time they are leaning towards modernization, still most of them are associated with
the centuries-old tradition of keeping livestock. These people take their livestock to the pastures
and thus share in the snow leopard's habitat. A large number of livestock grazing in the snow
leopard's habitat attracts this opportunistic animal to attack domestic animals. This is the point
where the conflict between snow leopards and livestock owners starts, with the snow leopard
killed in retaliation. Snow leopard depredation causes economic losses to the herders and
women, being the managers of the house, take the maximum impact. Keeping this fact in view,
a study was undertaken in the two demonstration sites of the snow leopard project in Chitral and
Gilgit. A specific questionnaire was used and information was collected from all the women
herders in the two demo sites. The study revealed that women have positive attitudes toward and
feel love for this precious animal.
Keywords: snow; leopard; women; womens; conservation; conflict; herders; economic; loss; Pakistan; Female; 4950
Johansson, O., Koehler, G., Rauset, G. R.< Samelius, G., Andren, H., Mishra, C., Lhagvarsuren, P., McCarthy, T., Low, M. (2018). Sex specific seasonal variation in puma and snow leopard home range utilization. Ecosphere, 9(8), 1–14.
Abstract: Territory size is often larger for males than for females in species without biparental care. For large solitary carnivores, this is explained by males encompassing a set of female territories to monopolize their reproduction during mating (area maximization). However, males are expected to behave more like females outside of breeding, with their area utilization being dependent on the range required to secure food resources (area minimization). To examine how male and female solitary carnivores adjust their spatial organization during the year as key resources (mates and prey) change, we radio‐collared 17 pumas (Puma concolor; nine males and eight females) and 14 snow leopards (Panthera uncia; seven males and seven females) and estimated home range size and overlap on two temporal scales (annual vs. monthly). Contrary to expectation, we found no evidence that males monopolized females (the mean territory overlap between females and the focal male during the mating season was 0.28 and 0.64 in pumas and snow leopards, respectively). Although male�male overlap of annual home ranges was comparatively high (snow leopards [0.21] vs. pumas [0.11]), monthly home range overlaps were small (snow leopards [0.02] vs. pumas [0.08]) suggesting strong territoriality. In pumas, both males and females reduced their monthly home ranges in winter, and at the same time, prey distribution was clumped and mating activity increased. In snow leopards, females showed little variation in seasonal home range size, following the seasonal stability in their primary prey. However, male snow leopards reduced their monthly home range utilization in the mating season. In line with other studies, our results suggest that female seasonal home range variation is largely explained by changes in food resource distribution. However, contrary to expectations, male territories did not generally encompass those of females, and males reduced their home ranges during mating. Our results show that male and female territorial boundaries tend to intersect in these species, and hint at the operation of female choice and male mate guarding within these mating systems.
Keywords: Cougar, female choice, LoCoH, mating tactics, Panthera Uncia, Puma concolor, spacing pattern, territoriality
Johnston, L. A., Donoghue, A. M., O'Brien, S. J., & Wildt, D. E. (1991). Rescue and maturation in vitro of follicular oocytes collected from nondomestic felid species. Biol Reprod, 45(6), 898–906.
Abstract: The potential for rescuing immature oocytes from the ovaries of females of rare felid species which die or undergo medical ovariohysterectomy was evaluated. Ovaries were recovered from 13 species representing 35 individuals in good-to-poor health. Although the majority of females were 10 yr of age or older and in fair-to-poor health, a total of 846 oocytes were recovered of which 608 (71.9%) were classified as fair-to- excellent quality. One hundred of these oocytes were used for initial maturation classification and as parthogenetic controls. Overall, of the 508 fair-to-excellent quality oocytes placed in culture, 164 (32.3%) matured to metaphase II in vitro. For species in which 3 or more individuals yielded oocytes, mean oocyte maturation rates were as follows: 36.2%, tiger; 27.9% leopard; and 8.3%, cheetah. In vitro insemination of oocytes resulted in fertilization (2 polar bodies, 2 pronuclei, or cleavage) rates of 9.1% to 28.6% (leopard) using homologous fresh spermatozoa and 4.0% (lion) to 40.0% (puma) using homologous frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Inseminations using heterologous (domestic cat) spermatozoa also resulted in fertilized oocytes in the tiger, leopard, snow leopard, puma, serval, and Geoffroy's cat (range in fertilization rate, 5.0% for leopard to 46.2% for puma). Cleaved embryos resulted from the insemination of leopard oocytes with homologous sperm (n = 1 embryo) and puma oocytes with domestic cat sperm (n = 3 embryos). These results demonstrate that immature ovarian oocytes from rare felid species can be stimulated to mature in vitro despite an excision-to-culture interval as long as 36 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Keywords: Animal; Carnivora; anatomy; histology; physiology; Cells; Cultured; Female; Fertilization; Vitro; inVitro; Male; Oocytes; cytology; growth; development; ovarian; Follicle; Spermatozoa; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; U.S.Gov't; P.H.S.; browse; non; us; gov't; government; 230
Kolmstetter, C., Munson, L., & Ramsay, E. C. (2000). Degenerative spinal disease in large felids. J Zoo Wildl Med, 31(1), 15–19.
Abstract: Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. The medical record, radiographic data, and the necropsy report of each animal were examined for evidence of intervertebral disc disease or spondylosis. Eight (three lions, four tigers, and one leopard) animals were diagnosed with degenerative spinal disease. Clinical signs included progressively decreased activity, moderate to severe rear limb muscle atrophy, chronic intermittent rear limb paresis, and ataxia. The age at onset of clinical signs was 10-19 yr (median = 18 yr). Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column was useful in assessing the severity of spinal lesions, and results were correlated with necropsy findings. Lesions were frequently multifocal, included intervertebral disc mineralization or herniation with collapsed intervertebral disc spaces, and were most common in the lumbar area but also involved cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Marked spondylosis was present in the cats with intervertebral disc disease, presumably subsequent to vertebral instability. Six of the animals' spinal cords were examined histologically, and five had acute or chronic damage to the spinal cord secondary to disc protrusion. Spinal disease should be suspected in geriatric large felids with decreased appetite or activity. Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column is the most useful method to assess the type and severity of spinal lesions.
Keywords: Age-Factors; Animal; Animals; zoo; Autopsy; veterinary; Carnivora; Female; Lions; Male; Age; factor; browse; 110
Liao, Y. F. (1985). The Geographical Distribution of Ounces in Qinghai Province. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 5(3), 183–188.
Abstract: This paper deals with the geographical distribution of ounces (Panthera uncia) in Qinghai Province. Ounces are distributed in 20 counties- Guide, Huzhu, Menyuan, Qilian, Tianjun, Dulan, Golmud, Guinan, Xinghai, Zhidoi, Zadoi, Nangqen, Yushu, Chindu, Qumarleb, Madio, Maqen, Jigzhi, Baima, Darlag. Among them, there fore 4 counties- Qilian, Tianjun, Dulan, Zadoi, in which the number of ounces are bigger. The number of ounces are shown in table 2. There are altogether 73 ounces (40 male, 33 female) which is supported to every park of China for ornamental, they were captured by fellow-villagers, and 44 ounces (23 male, 21 female) of them are below 6 months old, 9 ounces (6 male, 3 female) of them are 1 year old, 2 ounces (male) are 2 years old, and 18 ounces (9 male, 9 female) are adults.
Ounces live at an altitude of 3000-4100 metres above the sea, and prefer to eat Bharal (Pseudois noyour). Its breeding period goes from April to June, the number of embryos being 2-3.
A female ounce was successfully reproduced for the first time at Xining People's Park of China, in Spetember, 1984, and she gave birth to 3 young ounces.
Keywords: China; Qinghai; distribution; browse; 5470; ounce; panthera; panthera uncia; Panthera-uncia; uncia; province; 20; Qilian; number; 40; Male; Female; park; Adult; bharal; Pseudois; breeding; people; birth; young; Chinese
Pfeil, A., Lucker, H., & Pfeil, I. (2004). Leiomyoma in the urinary bladder of a female snow leopard (Uncia uncia, Schreber, 1776). Tier„rztliche Praxis Kleintiere, 32(1), 40–44.
A leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 14-year-old female snow leopard exhibiting bloody vaginal discharge was removed by partial cystectomy. Gravel (struvite) was found in the urine of the inflammatory bladder. Additionally ovario-hysterectomy was performed. Histological findings showed a glandular-cystic hyperplasia. Tumors of the bladder are very rare in cats. Specifically the benign tumors of the bladder very often have no clinical relevance and rarely result in bladder dysfunction. Therefore they might remain undiagnosed in many cases, particularly since the diagnostic procedure in big cats is very extensive. Leiomyoma of the bladder in snow leopards have not been described yet. The present paper describes the surgery performed, the succeeding therapy, the struvit prophylaxis, and discusses the aetiology of the leiomyoma's origin on the basis of current literature. Zusammenfassung
Bei einer 14-j„hrigen Schneeleopardin mit blutigem Vaginalausfluss wurde ein Leiomyom der Blase durch partielle Zystektomie entfernt. Im Urin und in der entzndeten Blase konnte Grieá (Struvit) nachgewiesen werden. Gleichzeitig wurde eine Ovariohysterektomie durchgefhrt. Der histologische Befund ergab eine glandul„r-zystische Hyperplasie des Endometriums. Tumoren der Harnblase sind bei Katzen sehr selten. Vor allem benigne Blasentumoren haben oft keine klinische Relevanz und fhren selten zu Blasenfunktionsst”rungen. Es ist daher m”glich, dass sie insbesondere bei Groákatzen wegen der aufwendigen Diagnostik bersehen werden. Leiomyome in der Blase sind beim Schneeleoparden bisher nicht beschrieben. In diesem Artikel werden die durchgefhrte Operation, die folgende Therapie und Struvitprophylaxe beschrieben sowie m”gliche Žtiologien der Entstehung des Leiomyoms anhand der Literatur diskutiert.
Keywords: Bladder; captive; diagnostic; Female; german; leopard; origin; snow-leopard; snow-leopards; snow leopard; snow leopards; surgery; therapy; uncia; Uncia-uncia; Uncia uncia; urinary; veterinary; zoo