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|De-hao, L. (1989). Economic Fauna of Qinghai. Xining: Qinghai People's Publishing House.|
Farrington, J. (2005). A Report on Protected Areas, Biodiversity, and Conservation in the Kyrgyzstan Tian Shan with Brief Notes on the Kyrgyzstan Pamir-Alai and the Tian Shan Mountains of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and China. Ph.D. thesis, , Kyrgyzstan.
Abstract: Kyrgyzstan is a land of towering mountains, glaciers, rushing streams, wildflowercovered meadows, forests, snow leopards, soaring eagles, and yurt-dwelling nomads. The entire nation lies astride the Tian Shan1, Chinese for “Heavenly Mountains”, one of the world's highest mountain ranges, which is 7439 m (24,400 ft) in elevation at its highest point. The nation is the second smallest of the former Soviet Central Asian republics. In
spite of Kyrgyzstan's diverse wildlife and stunning natural beauty, the nation remains little known, and, as yet, still on the frontier of international conservation efforts. The following report is the product of 12 months of research into the state of conservation and land-use in Kyrgyzstan. This effort was funded by the Fulbright Commission of the U.S. State Department, and represents the most recent findings of the author's personal environmental journey through Inner Asia, which began in 1999. When I first started my preliminary research for this project, I was extremely surprised to learn that, even though the Tian Shan Range has tremendous ecological significance for conservation efforts in middle Asia, there wasn't a single major international conservation organization with an office in the former Soviet Central Asian republics. Even more surprising was how little awareness there is of conservation issues in the Tian Shan region amongst conservation workers in neighboring areas who are attempting to preserve similar species assemblages and ecosystems to those found in the Tian Shan. Given this lack of awareness, and the great potential for the international community to make a positive contribution towards improving the current state of biodiversity conservation in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia, I have summarized my findings on protected areas and conservation in Kyrgyzstan and the Tian Shan of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Xinjiang in the chapters below. The report begins with some brief background information on geography and society in the Kyrgyz Republic, followed by an overview of biodiversity and the state of conservation in the nation, which at the present time closely parallels the state of conservation in the other former Soviet Central Asian republics. Part IV of the report provides a catalog of all major protected areas in Kyrgyzstan and the other Tian Shan nations, followed by a list of sites in Kyrgyzstan that are as yet unprotected but merit protection. In the appendices the reader will find fairly comprehensive species lists of flora and fauna found in the Kyrgyz Republic, including lists of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, trees and shrubs, wildflowers, and endemic plants. In addition, a
draft paper on the history and current practice of pastoral nomadism in Kyrgyzstan has been included in Appendix A. While the research emphasis for this study was on eastern Kyrgyzstan, over the course of the study the author did have the opportunity to make brief journeys to southern Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang. While falling short of being a definitive survey of protected areas of the Tian Shan, the informational review which
follows is the first attempt at bringing the details of conservation efforts throughout the entire Tian Shan Range together in one place. It is hoped that this summary of biodiversity and conservation in the Tian Shan will generate interest in the region amongst conservationists, and help increase efforts to protect this surprisingly unknown range that forms an island of meadows, rivers, lakes, and forests in the arid heart of Asia.
Keywords: Report; protected; protected areas; protected area; protected-areas; protected-area; areas; area; biodiversity; conservation; Kyrgyzstan; Tian; Tian-Shan; shan; Pamir-Alai; mountains; mountain; Kazakhstan; Uzbekistan; China; environmental; study; former; soviet; central; Central Asia; asia; land; Forest; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; Chinese; range; republic; wildlife; International; research; land-use; land use; recent; inner; project; ecological; Middle; Middle Asia; Organization; awareness; region; preserve; species; ecosystems; ecosystem; potential; community; Biodiversity conservation; Xinjiang; information; Kyrgyz; Kyrgyz-Republic; protection; flora; fauna; mammals; birds; reptiles; amphibians; endemic; plants; plant; history; Southern; survey; protect; river; heart
|Feng, Z. (1986). The mammals of Tibet. Beijing: Science Press.|
Jackson, R., Roe, J., Wangchuk, R., & Hunter, D. (2005). Surveying Snow Leopard Populations with Emphasis on Camera Trapping: A Handbook. Sonoma, California: The Snow Leopard Conservancy.
Abstract: This handbook provides an introduction to snow leopard population survey techniques, followed by a detailed account of camera trapping methods.During the 2002 through 2004 winter field seasons, the Snow Leopard Conservancy experimented with infrared camera trapping techniques to define a methodology suitable for the high altitude environment.
In 2001 and 2002, much of our time was spent familiarizing ourselves with various infrared camera traps, their operation and setup, and comparing the effectiveness of different models and sensor types. We placed infrared camera traps along frequently used travel corridors at or near scent-sprayed rocks (rock scents) and scrape sites within 16 km2 sampling cells between January and March in 2003 and 2004. A total of 66 and 49 captures of snow leopards were tallied during 2003 and 2004, resulting in an overall capture success of 8.91 and 5.63 individuals per 100 trap-nights, respectively. Capture probabilities ranged from 0.33 to 0.46. Density estimates ranged from 8.49 ± 0.22 individuals per 100 km2 in 2003 to 4.45 ± 0.16 in 2004, with the disparity between years largely attributed to different trapping densities. Snow leopard abundance estimates were calculated using the computer program CAPTURE.
Keywords: snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; survey; conservation; populations; population; camera; camera trapping; trapping; Chinese
Liao, Y. F. (1985). The Geographical Distribution of Ounces in Qinghai Province. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 5(3), 183–188.
Abstract: This paper deals with the geographical distribution of ounces (Panthera uncia) in Qinghai Province. Ounces are distributed in 20 counties- Guide, Huzhu, Menyuan, Qilian, Tianjun, Dulan, Golmud, Guinan, Xinghai, Zhidoi, Zadoi, Nangqen, Yushu, Chindu, Qumarleb, Madio, Maqen, Jigzhi, Baima, Darlag. Among them, there fore 4 counties- Qilian, Tianjun, Dulan, Zadoi, in which the number of ounces are bigger. The number of ounces are shown in table 2. There are altogether 73 ounces (40 male, 33 female) which is supported to every park of China for ornamental, they were captured by fellow-villagers, and 44 ounces (23 male, 21 female) of them are below 6 months old, 9 ounces (6 male, 3 female) of them are 1 year old, 2 ounces (male) are 2 years old, and 18 ounces (9 male, 9 female) are adults.
Ounces live at an altitude of 3000-4100 metres above the sea, and prefer to eat Bharal (Pseudois noyour). Its breeding period goes from April to June, the number of embryos being 2-3.
A female ounce was successfully reproduced for the first time at Xining People's Park of China, in Spetember, 1984, and she gave birth to 3 young ounces.
Keywords: China; Qinghai; distribution; browse; 5470; ounce; panthera; panthera uncia; Panthera-uncia; uncia; province; 20; Qilian; number; 40; Male; Female; park; Adult; bharal; Pseudois; breeding; people; birth; young; Chinese
Lui, C. -guang, Zheng, C. -wu, & Ren, J. -rang. (2003). Research Foods and Food Sources About Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) (Vol. 31).
Abstract: During 1984-1987, 1992-1995, and 1998-2001, the author researched snow leopard, white lipped deer, kiang, and argali in Qinghai, Gansu, Xingiang, and Sichuan. He collected 644 snow leopard droppings, and analyzed kinds of foods and sources from perch. Snow leopard's foods include most main foods, main foods, comparative foods and lesser foods. Studied one another
index of faunistic congruence of foods species that from various distribution and variation both perch vertical variety and foods of snow leopard.
Keywords: research; foods; food; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; panthera; panthera uncia; Panthera-uncia; uncia; Chinese; deer; kiang; argali; Qinghai; gansu; Sichuan; Comparative; congruence; species; distribution; variation
McCarthy, T., Breitenmoser, U., & Breitenmoser-Wursten, C. (2008). A king of snow peaks, another endangered flagship species. Man & the Biosphere, 54(6), 1.
Abstract: The preface of this journal mainly introduces the distribution areas and present living situation of the Snow Leopards. For saving the endangered and solitary mountain species, The Snow Leopard Trust is a leader in effort to secure the future of the felines, besides the authors emphasize that China plays great important role in the protection, because among the snow leopards range countries, China has the most habit and is believed to harbor the largest number of snow leopard.
Keywords: Chinese; endangered; flagship-species; snow leopard; species
Ming, M. (2008). A diary of infrared photography. Man & the Biosphere, 54(6), 26–35.
Abstract: The vivid and interesting stories recorded by the diary which is written by the professor Ma Ming tell us specific details of surveying Snow Leopard in the Tianshan Mountains. The members of the team overcame all kinds of difficulties and dangers with persistent enthusiasm for this work, finally, satisfactorily finishing the field survey. Recently, Ma Ming just has accomplished the preliminary investigation of snow leopards in Kunlun Mountains. If you want to share the experience of the surveying, please read this diary (http://maming3211.blog.163.com).
Keywords: photography; us; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; Tianshan Mountains; mountains; mountain; work; field; field survey; field-survey; survey; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Kunlun; Chinese
Ming, M., Chundawat R.S., Jumabay, K., Wu, Y., Aizeizi, Q., & Zhu, M. H. (2006). Camera trapping of snow leopards for the photo capture rate and population size in the Muzat Valley of Tianshan Mountains. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 52(4), 788–793.
Abstract: The main purpose of this work was to study the use of infrared trapping cameras to estimate snow leopard Uncia uncia population size in a specific study area. This is the first time a study of this nature has taken place in China. During 71 days of field work, a total of 36 cameras were set up in five different small vales of the Muzat Valley adjacent to the Tomur Nature Reserve in Xinjiang Province, E80ø35' – 81ø00' and N42ø00' – 42ø10', elevation 2'300 – 3'000 m, from 18th October to 27th December 2005. We expended approximately 2094 trap days and nights total (c. 50'256 hours). At least 32 pictures of snow leopards, 22 pictures of other wild species (e.g. chukor, wild pig, ibex, red fox, cape hare) and 72 pictures of livestock were taken by the passive Cam Trakker (CT) train monitor in about 16 points of the Muzat Valley. The movement distance of snow leopard was 3-10 km/day. And the capture rate or photographic rate of snow leopard was 1.53%. Meanwhile, 20 transects were run and 31 feces sample were collected. According to 32 photos, photographic rate and sign survey after snowing on the spot, were about 5-8 individuals of snow leopards in the research area, and the minimum density of snow leopard in Muzat Valley was 2.0 – 3.2 individuals/100 km2. We observed the behavior of ibex for 77.3 hours, and found about 20 groups and a total of approximately 264 ibexes in the research area.
Keywords: behavior; camera trapping; capture; China; Chinese; density; feces; fox; ibex; infrared trapping cameras; livestock; photo; population; research; reserve; sign; snow leopard; survey; Tianshan Mountains; Tomur; transect; Uncia uncia; Xinjiang
Ming, M., Munkhtsog, B., Xu, F., Turghan, M., Yin, S. -jing, & Wei, S. - D. (2005). Markings as Indicator of Snow Leopard in Field Survey, in Xinjiang.
Abstract: The Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) was a very rare species in China. The survey on the markings of Snow Leopard in Ahay and Tianshan Mountains is the major activity of the Project of Snow Leopard in Xinjiang, supported by International Snow Leopard Trust(ISLT)and Xinjiang Conservation Fund(XCF). During the field work from Sep to Nov 2004 the Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group(XSLG) set 67 transects of a total length of 47 776 m with mean transect length is 7 1 3 m at 9 locations.Total of 1 l 8 markings of Snow Leopards were found in 27 transects the mean density is 247km. The markings of Snow Leopard included the pug marks or footprints, scrapes, feces, bloodstain, scent spray, urine, hair or fur, claw rake, remains of prey corpse, sleep site, roar and others. From the quantity and locations of marks the XSLG got the information on habitat selection distribution region and relative abundance of the Snow Leopard in the study areas. The survey also provided knowledge on distribution and abundance of major prey potential conservation problems and human attitudes to Snow Leopards by taking 200 questionnaires in the study areas.
Keywords: markings; marking; snow leopard; leopard; field survey; Xinjiang; Chinese; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; China; Tianshan Mountains; conservation; field work; length; snow leopards; snow-leopards; density; densities; pug; pug marks; marks; scrapes; scrape; feces; scent; spray; Hair; fur; prey; habitat; Habitat selection; selection; distribution; region; relative abundance; abundance; study; areas; knowledge; potential; conservation problems; Human; attitudes; attitude; 200
Ming, M., Yun, G., & Bo, W. (2008). Chinese snow leopard team goes into action. Man & the Biosphere, 54(6), 18–25.
Abstract: China, the world's most populous country, also contains the largest number of Snow Leopards of any country in the world. But the survey and research of the snow leopard had been very little for the second half of the 20th century. Until recent years, the members of Xinjiang Snow Leopards Group (XSLG/SLT/XFC) , the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences have been tracking down the solitary animal. The journal reporter does a face-to-face interview with professor Ma Ming who is a main responsible expert of the survey team. By the account of such conversation, we learn the achievements, advances and difficulty of research of snow leopards in the field, Tianshan and Kunlun, Xinjiang, the far west China, and we also know that why the team adopt the infrared camera to capture the animals. Last but not least professor talked about the survival menace faced by the Snow Leopards in Xinjiang.
Keywords: Chinese; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; action; China; country; countries; number; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; survey; research; recent; Xinjiang; ecology; tracking; Animal; field; Kunlun; camera; capture; Animals; survival
Ming, M., Yun, G., & Bo, W. (2008). Man & the Biosphere: The special series for the conservation of Snow Leopards in China (Vol. 54).
Abstract: The Chinese magazine <Man & the Biosphere> (Series No. 54, No. 6, 2008) -- A special series for the conservation of Snow Leopards was published by the Chinese National Committee for Man & the Biosphere in 15th December 2008. It is about 80 pages including ten articles with 200 color pictures. The special editors of this issue are the experts from SLT/XCF Prof. MaMing, Mrs. Ge Yun and Mr. Wen Bo. The first paper is “A King of Snow Peaks, Another Endangered Flagship Species” by Dr. Thomas McCarthy, Dr. Urs Breitenmmoser and Dr. Christine Breitenmoser-Wursten (Page 1-1). Another paper “ Conservation : Turning Awareness to Action ” is also from Dr. Thomas McCarthy (Pages from 6-17). There are four articles including the diary and story of the Surveys in Tomur Mountain and Kunlun Mountains written by Prof. MaMing, Mr. XuFeng, Miss Chen Ying and Miss Cheng Yun from the Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group and XCF, the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The last is “Snow Leopard Enterprises ” -- A Story from Mongolia by Mrs. Jennifer Snell Rullman and Mrs. Agvaantseren Bayarjargal (Bayara). It is a very useful copy for the conservation in China. Cited as:
Ma Ming, GeYun and WenBo (Special editors of this issue). 2008. The special series for the conservation of Snow Leopards in China. Man & the Biosphere 2008(6): 1-80. Contents 1, A king of snow peaks, another endangered flagship species (Synopsis) ------------- 1-1 The contents --------------------------------------------- ( pages from 2-3 )
2, Protecting Snow Leopard means protecting a healthy eco-systems -------------- 4-5
3, Conservation: Turning awareness into action -------------- 6-17
4, Chinese Snow Leopard Team goes into action -------------- 18-25
5, A diary of infrared photography -------------- 26-35
6, Why have the snow leopards in the Tianshan Mountains begun to attack livestock? --- 36-43
7, The mystery of the Snow Leopards coming down the Tianshan Mountains ----------- 44-45
8, Snow leopards secluded Home on the Plateau ------------- 46-59
9, He saw Snow Leopards 30 years ago ------------- 60-69
10, Snow Leopard Enterprises -- A story from Mongolia ------------- 70-80
Keywords: conservation; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; China; Chinese; national; 80; 200; endangered; McCarthy; awareness; action; surveys; survey; Tomur; mountain; Kunlun; mountains; Xinjiang; ecology; enterprises; Mongolia; Bayarjargal; 180; flagship-species; species; ecosystems; ecosystem; photography; Tianshan Mountains; attack; livestock; home; plateau; 30; snow-leopard-enterprises; 7080
|Wharton, D., & Mainka, S. A. (1986). Snow leopards, livestock management. China: Xinjiang Conservation Fund & International Snow Leopard Trust.|
Williams, N. (2008). 2008 International Conference on Range-wide Conservation Planning for Snow Leopards: Saving the Species Across its Range. Cat News, 48, 33–34.
Abstract: Over 100 snow leopard experts, enthusiasts, and government officials gathered in the outskirts of Beijing, China from March 7–11, 2008 for the firstever International Conference on Range-wide Conservation Planning for Snow Leopards. Conference organizers included Panthera, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Snow Leopard Trust (SLT), Snow Leopard Network (SLN), and the Chinese Institute of Zoology.
Keywords: Panthera, conference,Beijing, China, 2008, planning, Wildlife Conservation Society, Snow Leopard Trust, Snow Leopard Network, Chinese Institute of Zoology
Xu, F., Ming, M., Yin, S. -jing, Chundawat R.S., Marden, & Nui, Y. (2006). Preliminary Study on the Habitat Selection of Uncia uncia (Vol. 23).
Abstract: Uncia uncia is one of the rare large species on the brink of extinction in Felidae in the world, and inhabit only the Central Asian mountains. It is said that there are currently only 4500-7300 Uncia uncia surviving. During the period from September 2004 to July 2005, the habitat selection of Uncia uncia was investigated in some mountains in Xinjiang, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains, Beita Mountains, Altay Mounts and Mount Tumor National Nature Reserve. In several months of fieldwork, we got 171 sign samples of Uncia uncia and 123 random samples in total. Five habitat features, i.e., the elevation, topographic features, vegetation type, grazing status and ruggedness, are selected to compare the difference of selectivity of the Uncia uncia habitat selection. The Chi-square goodness-of-fit test and the binomial test are used to check the significance of Uncia uncia habitat selection, and the principal component analysis is used to find the primary factors in in the selection. The result s are as follows : (1) Uncia uncia selected all kinds of the habitat types , especially the elevation , topography , vegetation types and ruggedness ; (2) Ruggedness and the vegetation types are the preliminary factors for the habitat selection. Topography is the secondary factor ; (3) Uncia uncia prefer to inhabit in the rugged habitat s with moderate shrubberies , and they also like to leave signs in valley bottoms rather than hillsides.
Keywords: study; habitat; Habitat selection; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Chinese; research; large; species; extinction; Felidae; central; mountains; mountain; Xinjiang; Tianshan Mountains; Altay; national; nature; reserve; fieldwork; sign; grazing; status; Test; analysis; primary; factor; topography; valley
Xu, F., Ming, M., Yin, S. -jing, & Munkhtsog, B. (2006). Autumn Habitat Selection by Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) in Beita Mountain, Xinjiang, China.
Abstract: Habitat selection of Snow Leopard ( Unica unica) in Beita Mountain of the Altay Mountain system in northeast Xinjiang was conducted from September to October 2004. Six habitat features of 59 sites used by Snow Leopard and 30 random plots were measured by locating 15 transects surveys in the study area . Vanderploge and Scaviaps selectivity index was used to assess Snow Leopardps selection for the different habitat parameters. Principal Component Analysis was used as the primary factor . The results indicated that Snow Leopard preferred the altitude between 2000 – 2 200 m and avoided 2 600 – 3 000 m ; selected cliff base , ridgeline and avoided hillside and valley bottom ; utilized the shrub and rejected the forest ; selected the nongrazing area and avoided the slightly broken region ; preferred north orientation and rejected the south orientation. The results show that grazing status , vegetation type , topography and the ruggedness are the primary factors for the habitat selection of Snow Leopard.
Keywords: habitat; Habitat selection; selection; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; mountain; Xinjiang; China; Chinese; Altay; mountain system; system; 30; transects; transect; surveys; survey; study; area; analysis; primary; factor; 200; 600; Base; valley; Forest; region; south; grazing; status; topography
Xu, F., Ming, M., Yin, S. -jing, & Munkhtsog, B. (2007). Investigation on Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) and Its Prey in Baytag Mountain Region, Xinjiang (Vol. 21).
Abstract: The snow leopard and it s p rey were investigated in Beita Mountain Region , Xinjiang in Sep . 2004.
Both the field survey and questionnaire were involved in this project which was supported by the International
Snow Leopard Trust and Xinjiang Conservation Fund. The signs marked by the snow leopard were used
to reflect the living condition of snow leopard and they were collected by running transects. The prey investigation was conducted by positioned observation and route survey. Fifteen transects were done in the
project and 67 signs leaved by snow leopard were discovered in total. 58. 2 % of them were scrapes ,
35.8 % of t hem were feces , 4.5 % of them were claw rakes and 1. 5 % of them were scent
spray. As to the prey resources , 4 herds of 23 ibex and 24 herds of 418 chukars were found during the survey. Also 81 local people of 5 different nationalities were interviewed during the field work , 13.
58 % of them had seen the snow leopard , 20. 99 % of them had heard of snow leopard but not seen. Among t hem , 10 herdsmen had sufferred from the loss of livestock attacked by snow leopard.
Keywords: Beita mountain; prey resource; snow leopard; Xinjiang; Chinese
|Yanfa, L. (1985). A preliminary investigation into the geographic distribution of the snow leopard Panthera uncia Schreber. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 5(3), 184–188.|
|Yanfa, L., & Huanwen, L. (1986). A preliminary study on the rearing and breeding of ounce. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 6(2), 93–99.|
Yu, N. Z. C., Wang, X., He, G., Zhang, Z., Zhang, A., Lu, W., et al. (1996). A revision of genus Uncia Gray, 1854 based on mitochondrial DNA restriction site maps. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 16(2), 105–108.
Abstract: The Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is one of the most threatened wild big cats within its range of distribution, however, the question of its systematic status is a matter of debate. Is it a member of genus Panthera, or is it in its own genus (Uncia)? The analysis of genetic difference at the DNA level may provide useful data to clarify the issue. In the present study, ten hexanucleotide-specific restriction endonucleases were used to evaluate the patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation between the Snow leopard and leopard (P. pardus). The molecular size of mtDNA from the two species was about 16.5 kb. Ten enzymes surveyed 32-34 restriction sites, which corresponded to 192 apprx 204 base pairs, or 1.16% apprx 1.24% of the total mtDNA molecule. A total of 45 restriction sites were mapped; of these sites, twenty-four, which correspond to 53.3% of the total sites, were variable. The sequence divergence between them was 0.075 33, which was undoubtedly in the species-level distinction but did not reach the genus level. Therefore, the Snow leopard should be placed in the genus Panthera rather than in its own ganus. It also seems reasonable to recognize Uncia as a valid subgenus. This conclusion not only support but also supplement the viewpoint of Simpson who treated Uncia as a subgenus within Panthera.
Keywords: taxonomy; uncia; panthera; snow-leopard; snow leopard; browse; 1350; Chinese
Zhou, S. (1991). On “uncia uncia” and “meng ji” in Shan Hai Jin (Vol. 13).
Abstract: Meng ji is described in Shan Hui Jin (Classic of Mountains and Rivers) as a leopard-like animal adept in hiding with white fur and a patterned forehead. This article makes a comparison between “meng ji” and “uncia uncia” in terms of their shapes, fur colors, natural environments of habitats, habits, characteristics and native areas, and comes to the conclusion that “meng ji” is what we call “uncia uncia” nowadays. The description of “meng ji” in Shan Hui Jin should be the first record of Uncia uncia in the world.
Keywords: Animal; area; areas; China; Chinese; description; environment; fur; habitat; habitats; historical; meng ji; mountain; mountains; native; river; uncia; Uncia-uncia; Uncia uncia