Abstract: The Tost-Tosonbumba Mountains of South Gobi represent one of the most impressive habitats for the endangered snow leopard Panthera Uncia, supporting amongst the highest population density of this rare cat reported so far from across it's global range. A prestigious multi-institutional internal research collaboration was initiated in Tost-Tosonbumba in 2008 with the establishment of a sate of the art research station. Yet, lying outside any protected area, this important snow leopard population and its habitat face direct and urgent threats due to mining. Initiation of mining in the region would (i) severely impact an important snow leopard population and destroy much of its habitat, (ii) compromise the possibility of genetic exchange of snow leopards over a much larger landscape (iii) lay to waste ten years of effort with local communities that have involved improving livelihoods and seeking their co-operation in snow leopard conservation and (iv) squander the opportunity for Mongolia to continue a prestigious one of a kind, long-term international collaborative program on snow leopard research. It is critical that mining licenses in snow leopard habitats of the region be immediately revoked, and the local communities be supported in their efforts to develop the Tost-Tosonbumba Mountains into a local protected area.