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Author Li, J., Lu, Z. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard poaching and trade in China 2000- 2013 Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 176 Pages 207-211  
  Keywords Bone Pelt, Panthera uncial, Retaliatory killing, Sanjiangyuan  
  Abstract The snow leopard is a flagship species of the alpine ecosystem in the Central Asia, with China comprising

nearly 60% of the habitat and population. It was listed as endangered by IUCN and included in Appendix I

of CITES in the 1970s. Poaching for its fur and bones is a significant and increasing threat to snow leopards

globally. However, little detailed information is available on snow leopard poaching in China. Here,

we collected all reported cases of snow leopard poaching and trade in China 2000–2013. We found that

snow leopard parts were mainly traded in the major cities within their range provinces, but also began to

emerge in a few coastal cities after 2010. Household interviews in the Sanjiangyuan Region in Qinghai

Province showed that in this sub region alone, 11 snow leopards were killed annually, accounting for

about 1.2% of the estimated snow leopard population there.


 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1412  
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Author test openurl 
  Title test Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1413  
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Author Li, J., Lu, Z. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard Poaching and Trade in China 2000-2013 Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 176 Pages 207-211  
  Keywords Bone, Pelt, Panthera uncial, Retaliatory killing, Sanjiangyuan  
  Abstract The snow leopard is a flagship species of the alpine ecosystem in the Central Asia, with China comprising

nearly 60% of the habitat and population. It was listed as endangered by IUCN and included in Appendix I

of CITES in the 1970s. Poaching for its fur and bones is a significant and increasing threat to snow leopards

globally. However, little detailed information is available on snow leopard poaching in China. Here,

we collected all reported cases of snow leopard poaching and trade in China 2000–2013. We found that

snow leopard parts were mainly traded in the major cities within their range provinces, but also began to

emerge in a few coastal cities after 2010. Household interviews in the Sanjiangyuan Region in Qinghai

Province showed that in this sub region alone, 11 snow leopards were killed annually, accounting for

about 1.2% of the estimated snow leopard population there.


 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1414  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sharma, K., Bayrakcismith, R., Tumursukh, L., Johansson, O., Sevger, P., McCarthy, T., Mishra, C. url  openurl
  Title Vigorous Dynamics Underlie a Stable Population of the Endangered Snow Leopard Panthera uncia in Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 7 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Population monitoring programmes and estimation of vital rates are key to understanding the mechanisms of population growth, decline or stability, and are important for effective conservation action. We report, for the first time, the population trends and vital rates of the endangered snow leopard based on camera trapping over four years in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. We used robust design multi-season mark-recapture analysis to estimate the trends in abundance, sex ratio, survival probability and the probability of temporary emigration and immigration for adult and young snow leopards. The snow leopard population remained constant over most of the study period, with no apparent growth (l = 1.08+20.25). Comparison of model results with the ‘‘known population’’ of radio-collared snow leopards suggested

high accuracy in our estimates. Although seemingly stable, vigorous underlying dynamics were evident in this population, with the adult sex ratio shifting from being male-biased to female-biased (1.67 to 0.38 males per female) during the study. Adult survival probability was 0.82 (SE+20.08) and that of young was 0.83 (SE+20.15) and 0.77 (SE +20.2) respectively, before and after the age of 2 years. Young snow leopards showed a high probability of temporary emigration and immigration (0.6, SE +20.19 and 0.68, SE +20.32 before and after the age of 2 years) though not the adults (0.02 SE+20.07). While the current female-bias in the population and the number of cubs born each year seemingly render the study population safe, the vigorous dynamics suggests that the situation can change quickly. The reduction in the proportion of

male snow leopards may be indicative of continuing anthropogenic pressures. Our work reiterates the importance of monitoring both the abundance and population dynamics of species for effective conservation.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1416  
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Author Suryawanshi, K. R., Bhatia, S., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Redpath, S., Mishra, C url  openurl
  Title Multiscale Factors Affecting Human Attitudes toward Snow Leopards and Wolves Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Conservation biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 00 Issue Pages 1-10  
  Keywords Canis lupus, carnivore, human–wildlife conflicts, Panthera uncia, wildlife acceptance  
  Abstract The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between

them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local

residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores,

but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined.We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus).

We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in

the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured

variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors.We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1417  
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Author Khan, B., Ablimit, A., Nawaz, M. A., Ali, R., Khan, M. Z., Jaffaruddin, Karim, R. url  openurl
  Title Pastoralist experience and tolerance of snow leopard, wolf and lynx predation in Karakoram Pamir Mountains Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Journal of Biodiversity and Envirnomental Sciences Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 214-229  
  Keywords Carnivore, herbivores, interaction, Karakoram, Pamir, Khunjerab, Taxkorgan, China, Pakistan  
  Abstract Human-carnivore conflict is a common conservation and livelihood issue in mountain communities. This study was conducted to understand nature and extent of socio-ecological interaction between pastoralism and wildlife conservation in cold deserts of Karakoram Pamir Mountains (KPM) between China and Pakistan. Study revealed that livestock depredation is a burning issue in KPM with varying intensity from place to place, depending upon wild prey abundance, herd size, herding practices, predator type and age. Snow leopard, wolf and lynx were the major predators, while Brown bear despite its presence was reported being less fatal to livestock. Snow leopard killed highest number of animals (88.7% n=1440) mostly sheep and goats whereas, wolf killed more juvenile yaks. Lynx was found occasionally predating on young domestic crop. Highest number of kills was recorded from pastures during summer months (July-Aug) when animals were free grazing or were kept inside pens at night. Wild prey base being abysmally low, livestock seemed offering a considerable portion of diet to carnivores. Despite considerable losses from carnivores, more respondents in KNP (Pakistan) buffer zone had sympathies for predators compared to those in TNR (China) who were annoyed of the carnivores. Although people attributed escalating human-carnivore conflict to a higher level of protection to wild animals in Protected Areas (PA) but efforts are still needed to judiciously integrate conservation with local livelihood and development needs, otherwise herders may continue losing their livestock to predators and retaliatory killing of endangered carnivore species i.e., Snow leopard and Wolf may continue unabated and would further destabilize the fragile mountain ecosystem.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1418  
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Author Xu, G.,MaMing, R.,Buzzard, P.,Blank, D. url  openurl
  Title Nature reserve in Xingjiang: a snow leopard paradise or refuge for how long? Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Selevinia Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 22 Issue Pages 144-149  
  Keywords Snow Leopards  
  Abstract The snow leopard Uncia uncia is an endangered species, which is widely but thinly

distributed throughout its range in the mountains of Central Asia. China contains as

much as 60% of the snow leopard’s potential habitat and has the largest population

of this species. Xinjiang is the largest province in China, covering an area of 1.66

million km² or about one-sixth of the land area of China. Xinjiang is one of the

most important areas for snow leopards with much potential habitat in mountain

ranges such as the north and south Tienshan and Kunlun containing almost 30% of the

world’s snow leopard population. By the end of 2013, total 35 natural reserves have

been established in Xinjiang, and 20 of these areas have snow leopards (Ma et al,

2013). In this paper, we report on the status of snow leopards in these protected

areas and show that they play an important role in protecting snow leopards and

their habitats. Then, we discuss the many problems and challenges faced by these

protected areas.
 
  Address  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1423  
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Author Mishra, C., Suryawanshi, K. url  openurl
  Title Managing conflicts over livestock depradation by Large Carnivores Type Book Chapter
  Year (down) 2014 Publication SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION – Human-Wildlife Conflict in the Mountains of SAARC Region – Compilation of Successful Management Strategies and Practices Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 27-47  
  Keywords Snow leopard Panthera uncia, wolf Canis lupus, Himalayas, Central Asia  
  Abstract Managing wildlife-caused damage to human interests has become an important aspect of contemporary conservation management. Conflicts between pastoralism and carnivore conservation over livestock depredation pose a serious challenge to endangered carnivores worldwide, and have become an important livelihood concern locally. Here, we first review the primary causes of these conflicts, their socio-ecological correlates, and commonly employed mitigation measures. We then describe a community-based program to manage conflicts over livestock depredation by snow leopards Panthera uncia and wolves Canis lupus. A threats-based conceptual model of conflict management is presented. Conflicts over livestock depredation are characterized by complex, multi-scale interactions between carnivore and livestock behavioral ecology, animal husbandry, human psyche, culture, world-views, and socio-economic and education levels of affected peoples. A diversity of commonly employed conflict-mitigation measures is available. They aim at (i) reducing livestock depredation through better livestock herding, use of physical, chemical or psychological barriers, removal of carnivores, and use of livestock guard animals, (ii) offsetting economic losses through damage compensation and insurance programmes, and (iii) increasing peoples’ tolerance of carnivores through indirect approaches such as conservation education and economic incentives. For effective management, conflicts need to be understood along two important dimensions, viz., the reality of damage caused to humans, and the psyche and perceptions of humans who suffer wildlife caused damage. The efficacy of commonly used mitigation measures is variable. A combination of measures that reduce the level of livestock depredation, share or offset economic losses, and improve the social carrying capacity for carnivores will be more effective in managing conflicts than standalone measures  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1424  
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Author Janecka, J. E., Jackson, R., Munkhtsog, B., Murphy, W. J. url  openurl
  Title Characterization of 9 microsatellites and primers in snow leopards and a species-specific PCR assay for identifying noninvasive samples Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Conservation Genetic Resource Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 369:373  
  Keywords Microsatellites,Cytochrome b, Snow Leopard, Noninvasive genetics, Individual identification  
  Abstract Molecular markers that can effectively identify noninvasively collected samples and provide genetic

information are critical for understanding the distribution, status, and ecology of snow leopards (Panthera uncia). However, the low DNA quantity and quality in many

noninvasive samples such as scats makes PCR amplification and genotyping challenging. We therefore designed primers for 9 microsatellites loci previously isolated in the

domestic cat (Felis catus) specifically for snow leopard studies using noninvasive samples. The loci showed moderate levels of variation in two Mongolian snow leopard

populations. Combined with seven other loci that we previously described, they have sufficient variation (He = 0.504, An = 3.6) for individual identification and

population structure analysis. We designed a species species specific PCR assay using cytochrome b for identification of unknown snow leopard samples. These molecular markers

facilitate in depth studies to assess distribution, abundance, population structure, and landscape connectivity of this endangered species.

endangered species
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1427  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Janecka, J. E., Jackson, R., Munkhtsog, B., Murphy, W. J. url  openurl
  Title Characterization of 9 microsatellites and primers in snow leopards and a species-specific PCR assay for identifying noninvasive samples Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Conservation Genetic Resource Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 369:373  
  Keywords Microsatellites,Cytochrome b, Snow Leopard, Noninvasive genetics, Individual identification  
  Abstract Molecular markers that can effectively identify noninvasively collected samples and provide genetic

information are critical for understanding the distribution, status, and ecology of snow leopards (Panthera uncia). However, the low DNA quantity and quality in many

noninvasive samples such as scats makes PCR amplification and genotyping challenging. We therefore designed primers for 9 microsatellites loci previously isolated in the

domestic cat (Felis catus) specifically for snow leopard studies using noninvasive samples. The loci showed moderate levels of variation in two Mongolian snow leopard

populations. Combined with seven other loci that we previously described, they have sufficient variation (He = 0.504, An = 3.6) for individual identification and

population structure analysis. We designed a species species specific PCR assay using cytochrome b for identification of unknown snow leopard samples. These molecular markers

facilitate in depth studies to assess distribution, abundance, population structure, and landscape connectivity of this endangered species.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1428  
Permanent link to this record
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