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Author Subbotin, A.E.; Istomov, S.V. url  openurl
  Title The population status of snow leopards Uncia uncia (Felidae, Carnivora) in the western Sayan Mountain Ridge Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Doklady Biologicl Sciences Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 425 Issue Pages 183-186  
  Keywords population; status; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Felidae; Carnivora; Sayan; mountain; Russian; Test; species; cat; Russia; area; range; Data; study; activity; activities; behavior; habitats; habitat; humans; Human; number; description; Animal; structure  
  Abstract The snow leopard (Uncia uncial Schreber, 1776) is the most poorly studied species of the cat family in the world and, in particular, in Russia, where the northern periphery of the species area (no more than 3% of it) is located in the Altai-Hangai-Sayan range [1]. It is generally known that the existing data on the Russian part of the snow leopard population have never been a result of targeted studies; at best, they have been based on recording the traces of the snow leopard vital activity [2]. This is explained by the snow leopard's elusive behavior, inaccessibility of its habitats for humans, and its naturally small total numbers in the entire species area. All published data on the population status of the snow leopard in Russia, from the first descriptions of the species [3-6] to the latest studies [7, 8] are subjective, often speculative, and are not confirmed by

quantitative estimates. It is obvious, however, that every accurate observation of this animal is of particular interest [9]. The purpose of our study was to determine the structure and size of the population group presumably inhabiting the Western Sayan mountain ridge at the northern boundary of the species area
 
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  Publisher Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Place of Publication Editor  
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  ISSN 0012-4966 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Original Russian test published in Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 425, No.6, pp.846-849. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1005 Serial 941  
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Author Suryawanshi, K.R.; Bhatnagar, Y.; Mishra, C. url  openurl
  Title Why should a grazer browse? Livestock impact on winter resource use by bharal Pseudois nayaur Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-10  
  Keywords browse; livestock; impact; winter; resource; use; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; diet; variation; diets; conservation; Media; study; decline; areas; area; grazing; Pressure; plants; plant; sign; feeding; location; population; structure; populations; using; young; Female; times; High; Competition; species; predators; predator; endangered; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya  
  Abstract Many mammalian herbivores show a temporal diet variation between graminoid-dominated and browse dominated diets. We determined the causes of such a diet shift and its implications for conservation of a medium sized ungulate-the bharal Pseudois nayaur. Past studies show that the bharal diet is dominated by graminoids (>80%) during summer, but the contribution of graminoids declines to about 50% in winter. We tested the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses explaining the decline: low graminoid availability during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet; bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutritional quality, in their diet to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. We measured winter graminoid availability in areas with no livestock grazing, areas with relatively moderate livestock grazing, and those with intense livestock grazing pressures. The chemical composition of plants contributing to the bharal diet was analysed. The bharal diet was quantiWed through signs of feeding on vegetation at feeding locations. Population structures of bharal populations were recorded using a total count method. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. The bharal diet was dominated by graminoids (73%) in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to the bharal diet declined monotonically (50, 36%) with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was 3 times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. The composition of the bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Our results suggest that bharal include more browse in their diet during winter due to competition from livestock for graminoids. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock-free areas is necessary for the conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators including the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.  
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  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Online Editor  
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  Notes This study was made possible by a grant from the Snow Leopard Network. Additional support was given by the Wildlife Conservation Society-India Program and Nature Conservation Foundation, the Whitley Fund for Nature, the Ford Foundation, and the Nadathur Conservation Trust. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1062 Serial 951  
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Author Suryawanshi, K.R. url  openurl
  Title Towards snow leopard prey recovery: understanding the resource use strategies and demographic responses of bharal Pseudois nayaur to livestock grazing and removal; Final project report Type Report
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-43  
  Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; recovery; resource; use; strategy; demographic; Response; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; livestock; grazing; Report; decline; wild; populations; population; Himalayan; region; Competition; threats; threat; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; study; diet; winter; Test; browse; nutrition; areas; area; young; Female; times; High; Adult; mortality; species; predators; predator; endangered; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya  
  Abstract Decline of wild prey populations in the Himalayan region, largely due to competition with livestock, has been identified as one of the main threats to the snow leopard Uncia uncia. Studies show that bharal Pseudois nayaur diet is dominated by graminoids during summer, but the proportion of graminoids declines in winter. We explore the causes for the decline of graminoids from bharal winter diet and resulting implications for bharal conservation. We test the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses, (H1) low graminoid availability caused by livestock grazing during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet, and, (H2) bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutrition, to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. Graminoid quality in winter was relatively lower than that of browse, but the difference was not statistically significant. Bharal diet was dominated by graminoids in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to bharal diet declined monotonically with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was three times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. No starvation-related adult mortalities were observed in any of the areas. Composition of bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock free areas is necessary for conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators such as the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.  
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  Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program, 2008. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore. Post-graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Wildlife Conservation Society -India program, Bangalore, India. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1077 Serial 952  
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Author Trivedi, P. url  openurl
  Title Project Snow Leopard: Participatory conservation model for the Indian Himalaya Type Magazine Article
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Mountain Forum Bulletin Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Ix Issue 2 Pages 52-54  
  Keywords assessment; biodiversity; biodiversity assessment; conservation; global; Himalaya; Icimod; indian; links; mountain; network; participatory; project; Project-snow-leopard; project snow leopard; projects; research; resource; snow-leopard; snow leopard; Support  
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  Publisher Mountain Forum Place of Publication Editor  
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  ISSN 1815-2139 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes More details at: www.conservation.in or www.ncf-india.org and www.wii.gov.in Newsletter published biannually by Mountain Forum: www.mtnforum.org. Editorial Team: Marianne Heredge, Ujol Sherchan, Frans Neuman, Laura Keenan, Sunita Chaudhary, Suman Jaiswal. This newlstter edition is a joint product of the Mountain Forum, GMBA and MRI with support from ICIMOD, and brings together contributions from the three networks and partners. It also has a section on links to interesting organisations, resources and projects on Mountain Biodiversity. Published by the Mountain Forum Secretariat in collaboration with the respective Nodes in Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and North America and with the assistance of the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI) and the Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment (GMBA). Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1054 Serial 969  
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Author Wangchuk, R.; Jackson, R. url  openurl
  Title A Community-based Approach to Mitigating Livestock-Wildlife Conflict in Ladakh, India Type Report
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-9  
  Keywords community-based; approach; conflict; Ladakh; India; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; wolf; wolves; Himalayan; region; Jackson; kibber; Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary; wildlife; sanctuary; sanctuaries; loss; us; villagers; predation; establishment; surveys; survey; number; change; Animal; animal-husbandry; husbandry; system; 2000  
  Abstract Livestock depredation by snow leopard and wolf is widespread across the Himalayan region (Jackson et al. 1996, Jackson and Wangchuk 2001; Mishra 1997, Oli et al 1994). For example, in India's Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary, Mishra (1997) reported losses amounting to 18% of the livestock holdings and valued at about US $138 per household. The villagers claimed predation rates increased after establishment of the sanctuary, but

surveys indicated a dramatic increase in livestock numbers accompanying changes in animal husbandry systems (Mishra 2000).
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1014 Serial 1005  
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Author Wolf, M.; Ale, S. url  openurl
  Title Signs at the Top: Habitat Features Influencing Snow Leopard Uncia Uncia Activity in Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 90 Issue 3 Pages 604-611  
  Keywords activity patterns,human activity,Nepal,predator-prey,sign data,Uncia uncia  
  Abstract We used logistic regression to examine factors that affected the spatial distribution of sign (scrapes, feces, footprints, spray or scent marks, and rubbing sites) in a newly reestablished population of snow leopards (Uncia uncia) in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal. Our results indicate that terrain and human activity were the most important factors determining the spatial distribution of leopard activity, whereas presence of their major prey species (Himalayan tahr [Hemitragus jemlahicus]) had only a moderate effect. This suggests that localities at which these animals are active represent a trade-off between suitable habitat and avoidance of potential risk from anthropogenic origins. However, the influence of prey presence was likely underestimated because of the methodology used, and likely weighed in the trade-off as well.  
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  Notes Department of Biological Sciences (M/C 066), University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, 3352 SES, Chicago, IL 60607-7060, USA Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1026 Serial 1027  
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Author WWF Mongolia url  openurl
  Title Works done by Irves-1 operative group in 2009 Type Report
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-6  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Below works has been implemented by Irves-1 operative group of Specialized Inspection Agency.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author WWF Mongolia Thesis  
  Publisher WWF Mongolia Place of Publication Mongolia Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1104  
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Author Ale, S.B., Brown, J.S. url  openurl
  Title Prey behavior leads to predator: a case study of the Himalayan tahr and the snow leopard in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 4 Pages 315-327  
  Keywords vigilance, fear, behavioral indicator, predator, prey, snow leopard, Himalayan tahr, Mount Everest  
  Abstract Rare, elusive predators offer few sightings, hindering research with small sample sizes and lack of experimentation. While predators may be elusive, their prey are more readily observed. Prey respond to the presence of a predator, and these fear responses may have population- and community-level consequences. Anti-predator behaviors, such as vigilance, allow us to sidestep the difficulty of direct field studies of large predators by studying them indirectly. Here we used a behavioral indicator, the vigilance behavior of the Himalayan tahr, the snow leopard’s main local prey, to reveal the distribution and habitat use of snow leopards in the Mt. Everest region of Nepal. We combined techniques of conventional field biology with concepts of foraging theory to study prey behavior in order to obtain insights into the predator’s ecology. The Himalayan tahr’s vigilance behavior correlates with the distribution of snow leopard signs. Tahr actually led us to six sightings of snow leopards. We conclude that behavioral indicators provided by prey offer a valuable tool for studying and monitoring stealthy and rare carnivores.  
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  Publisher Science from Israel, a division of LPPLtd. Place of Publication Israel Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1109  
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Author Lovari, S., Boesi, R., Minder, I., Mucci, N., Randi, E., Dematteis, A., and Ale, S. B. url  openurl
  Title Restoring a keystone predator may endanger a prey species in a human-altered ecosystem: the return of the snow leopard to Sagarmatha National Park Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 559-570  
  Keywords conservation, food habits, genetics, Hemitragus jemlahicus, Himalayan tahr, management, microsatellite, predation, presence, scat, scat analysis, snow leopard, Uncia uncia  
  Abstract Twenty-five years ago, the snow leopard Uncia uncia, an endangered large cat, was eliminated from what is now Sagarmatha National Park (SNP). Heavy hunting pressure depleted that area of most medium-large mammals, before it became a park. After three decades of protection, the cessation of hunting and the recovery of wild ungulate populations, snow leopards have recently returned (four individuals). We have documented the effects of the return of the snow leopard on the population of its main wild prey, the Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus, a 'near-threatened' caprin. Signs of snow leopard presence were recorded and scats were collected along a fixed trail (130 km) to assess the presence and food habits of the snow leopard in the Park, from 2004 to 2006. Himalayan tahr, the staple of the diet, had a relative occurrence of 48% in summer and 37% in autumn, compared with the next most frequent prey, musk deer Moschus chrysogaster (summer: 20%; autumn: 15%) and cattle (summer: 15%; autumn: 27%). In early summer, the birth rate of tahr (young-to-female ratio: 0.8-0.9) was high. The decrease of this ratio to 0.1-0.2 in autumn implied that summer predation concentrated on young tahr, eventually altering the population by removing the kid cohort. Small populations of wild Caprinae, for example the Himalayan tahr population in SNP, are sensitive to stochastic predation events and may be led to almost local extinction. If predation on livestock keeps growing, together with the decrease of Himalayan tahr, retaliatory killing of snow leopards by local people may be expected, and the snow leopard could again be at risk of local extinction. Restoration of biodiversity through the return of a large predator has to be monitored carefully, especially in areas affected by humans, where the lack of important environmental components, for example key prey species, may make the return of a predator a challenging event.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1122  
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Author Zhatkanbayev, A., Dosov, N. url  openurl
  Title Natural death of a snow leopard close to Almaty megapolis Type Conference Article
  Year (down) 2009 Publication Teriofauna of Qazaqstan and neighboring countries (the materials of international science conference “The problems of research, conservation and sustainable use for teriofauna of Qazastan and neighboring countries” Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 168-170  
  Keywords Kazakhstan, snow leopard, Almaty  
  Abstract About natural dead case of Snow leopard close to Almaty megapolis.

Published in special edition as named “Teriofauna of Qazaqstan and neighboring countries (the materials of international science conference ”The problems of research, conservation and sustainable use for teriofauna of Qazastan and neighboring countries“, November, 15-16, 2009, Almaty)” under supervision of the Institute of Zoology, Center of Biological Research, Committee of Science, Ministry of Education and Science, The Republic of Qazaqstan.
 
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  Publisher Place of Publication Kazakhstan Editor  
  Language Russian Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1129  
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