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Author Paltsyn, M., Spitsyn, S.V., Kuksin, A. N., Istomov, S.V. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard Conservation in Russia Type Report
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 101  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This publication reviews potential actions for the long-term conservation of

snow leopards and their habitat in Russia in conditions of anthropogenic influence

and climate change in high elevation ecosystems. This edition is the result

of many years of research conducted in the framework of WWF’s “Ensuring the

long term protection of biodiversity in the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion” (1998-2011)

and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) financed by the Global

Environment Facility “Conservation of Biodiversity in the Russian portion Altai-

Sayan Ecoregion” (2005-2010).

The publication contains materials needed to prepare a Russian Snow Leopard

Conservation Strategy and was prepared for use by the Russian Ministry

of Natural Resources to develop comprehensive priority conservation measures

to protect this species. In addition, this publication is intended for protected

area specialists and staff at federal and regional government agencies

responsible for the conservation and monitoring of species listed in the

Russian Federation Red Book.

Reviewer: B. Munkhtsog, Candidate in Biological Sciences, staff scientist at

the Institute for Biology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, and president of the

Mongolian Snow Leopard Center.

Translation to English: J. Castner.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1384  
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Author Forrest, J. L.,Wikramanayake, E., Shrestha, R., Areendran, G., Gyeltshen, K., Maheshwari, A., Mazumdar, S., Naidoo, R., Thapa, G. J., Thapa, K. url  openurl
  Title Conservation and climate change: Assessing the vulnerability of snow leopard habitat to treeline shift in the Himalaya Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 150 Issue Pages 129-135  
  Keywords Snow leopard Climate adaptation Conservation planning Endangered species Climate change Himalaya  
  Abstract Climate change is likely to affect the persistence of large, space-requiring species through habitat shifts,

loss, and fragmentation. Anthropogenic land and resource use changes related to climate change can also

impact the survival of wildlife. Thus, climate change has to be integrated into biodiversity conservation

plans. We developed a hybrid approach to climate-adaptive conservation landscape planning for snow

leopards in the Himalayan Mountains. We first mapped current snow leopard habitat using a mechanistic

approach that incorporated field-based data, and then combined it with a climate impact model using a

correlative approach. For the latter, we used statistical methods to test hypotheses about climatic drivers

of treeline in the Himalaya and its potential response to climate change under three IPCC greenhouse gas

emissions scenarios. We then assessed how change in treeline might affect the distribution of snow leopard

habitat. Results indicate that about 30% of snow leopard habitat in the Himalaya may be lost due to a

shifting treeline and consequent shrinking of the alpine zone, mostly along the southern edge of the range

and in river valleys. But, a considerable amount of snow leopard habitat and linkages are likely to remain

resilient to climate change, and these should be secured. This is because, as the area of snow leopard habitat

fragments and shrinks, threats such as livestock grazing, retaliatory killing, and medicinal plant collection

can intensify. We propose this approach for landscape conservation planning for other species

with extensive spatial requirements that can also be umbrella species for overall biodiversity.

 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1385  
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Author Wegge, P., Shrestha, R., Flagstad, O. url  openurl
  Title Snow leopard Panthera uncia predation on livestock and wild prey in a mountain valley in northern Nepal: implications for conservation management Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Wildlife Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 18 Issue 10.2981/11-049 Pages 131-141  
  Keywords bharal, blue sheep, diet, genetic sampling, naur, Panthera uncia, predation, Pseudois nayaur, scat analysis, snow leopard, wildlife conflict  
  Abstract The globally endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia is sparsely distributed throughout the rugged mountains in Asia.

Its habit of preying on livestock poses a main challenge to management. In the remote Phu valley in northern Nepal, we

obtained reliable information on livestock losses and estimated predator abundance and diet composition from DNA

analysis and prey remains in scats. The annual diet consisted of 42%livestock. Among the wild prey, bharal (blue sheep/

naur) Pseudois nayaur was by far the most common species (92%). Two independent abundance estimates suggested that

there were six snow leopards in the valley during the course of our study. On average, each snow leopard killed about one

livestock individual and two bharal permonth. Predation loss of livestock estimated fromprey remains in scats was 3.9%,

which was in concordance with village records (4.0%). From a total count of bharal, the only large natural prey in the area

and occurring at a density of 8.4 animals/km2 or about half the density of livestock, snow leopards were estimated to

harvest 15.1% of the population annually. This predation rate approaches the natural, inherent recruitment rate of this

species; in Phu the proportion of kids was estimated at 18.4%. High livestock losses have created a hostile attitude against

the snow leopard and mitigation measures are needed. Among innovative management schemes now being implemented

throughout the species’ range, compensation and insurance programmes coupled with other incentive measures are

encouraged, rather than measures to reduce the snow leopard’s access to livestock. In areas like the Phu valley, where the

natural prey base consists mainly of one ungulate species that is already heavily preyed upon, the latter approach, if

implemented, will lead to increased predation on this prey, which over time may suppress numbers of both prey and

predator.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1386  
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Author Rosen, T. Hussain, S. Mohammad, G. Jackson, R. Janecka, J, E. Michel, S. url  openurl
  Title Reconciling Sustainable Development of Mountain Communities With Large Carnivore Conservation Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Mountain Research and Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 32(3) Pages 286-293  
  Keywords Carnivores; conflict; conservation; incentives; livestock; insurance scheme; community empowerment; Pakistan  
  Abstract While the world is becoming increasingly interconnected and interdependent, physically and culturally, the wildlife of remote mountain regions is being affected both positively and negatively by such interconnectedness. In the case of snow leopards, the conservation impact has been largely, and rather unexpectedly, positive: Species-focused conservation projects, such as Project Snow Leopard (PSL) in

Gilgit-Baltistan, remain mainly externally driven initiatives. PSL, initiated as a small pilot project in 1998, has relied on an approach that includes the use of an insurance scheme, the deployment of mitigation measures, and the empowerment of local governance. This approach has been successful in

reducing the conflict with snow leopards and has built greater tolerance toward them. PSL is managed by local communities and cofinanced by them. PSL communities throughout the region are bearing the burden of carnivore conservation, and they are unwittingly subsidizing their populations by ‘‘feeding’’

them their livestock even though they are an economic threat to them. In this article, we argue that external intervention in the form of efforts that help alleviate the consequences of conflict through local empowerment have had a positive impact on the local mountain societies. We also show that such interventions have resulted in tangible conservation results, with the number of snow leopards staying at least stable. Our experience also shows that while the incentive component is critical, it is also part of a larger approach—one that includes developing and supporting local governance structures, improving access to education, and offering a range of tools to reduce the conflict that can be implemented

locally. Finally, we suggest that investing in this approach— one that recognizes the species and local-context complexities surrounding the implementation of conservation incentives—can continue to inform international practices and guidelines for reducing human–wildlife conflicts worldwide.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1387  
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Author Li, J. Schaller, G, B. McCarthy, T. M. Wang, D. Jiagong, Z. Cai, P. Basang, L. Lu, Z url  openurl
  Title A Communal Sign Post of Snow Leopards (Panthera uncial) and Other Species on the Tibetan Plateau China Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication International Journal of Biodiversity Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2013 Issue Pages 1:8  
  Keywords snow leopard, Tibetan Plateau, sign post, conservation  
  Abstract The snow leopard is a keystone species in mountain ecosystems of Central Asia and the Tibetan Plateau, However, little is known about the interactions between snow leopards and sympatric carnivores. Using infrared cameras, we found a rocky junction of two valleys in Sanjiangyuan area on the Tibetan Plateau where many mammals in this area passed and frequently marked and sniffed the site at the junction. We suggest that this site serves as a sign post to many species in this area, especially snow leopards and other carnivores. The marked signs may also alert the animals passing by to temporally segregate their activities to avoid potential conflicts. We used the Schoener index to measure the degree of temporal segregation among the species captured by infrared camera traps at this site. Our research reveals the probable ways of both intra- and interspecies competition. This is an important message to help understand the structure of animal communities. Discovery of the sign post clarifies the importance of identifying key habitas ad sites of both snow leopards and other species for more effective conservation.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1389  
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Author Jackson. R url  openurl
  Title Fostering Community-Based Stewardship of Wildlife in Central Asia: Transforming Snow Leopards from Pests into Valued Assets Type Book Chapter
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Springer Science and Business Media Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 357-380  
  Keywords Gurvan Saikhan National Park,Annapurna National Park,Nepal,Pakistan,India,Mongolia,China,Tibet,Mining,Poaching,PRA,Holistic,Community engagement,Fuel,Habitat fragmentation  
  Abstract Book Title: Rangeland Stewardship in Central Asia: Balancing Improved Livelihoods, Biodiversity Conservation and Land Protection, 2012. Edited by Victor Squires. Published Springer Science+Business Media. 458 p. 91 illus., 61 in color.

Addressing human–wildlife conflict is an important requisite to managing

rangelands for livestock and wildlife. Despite high altitudes, aridity, and relatively

low primary productivity, the rangelands of Central Asia support a rich and diverse

biodiversity—including the endangered snow leopard that many herders perceive

as a predator to be eliminated. Conserving this and other wildlife species requires

carefully crafted interventions aimed at curbing depredation losses and/or reducing

competition for forage, along with offering locally sustainable, environmentally

friendly income-generating activities for supplementing pastoral household livelihoods.

This is best achieved through a combination of incentives designed to foster

sound rangeland and wildlife stewardship, along penalties or disincentives targeting

herders who violate mutually agreed rules and regulations (including grazing norms

and wildlife disturbance or poaching).

When working toward the harmonious coexistence of people and wildlife,

conservationists and rangeland practitioners need to seek the cooperation and

build goodwill among herders and other stakeholders, including local government

and private industry (especially the livestock production, mining, and tourism

sectors).
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1393  
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Author Maming, R. url  openurl
  Title Market prices for the tissues and organs of snow leopards in China Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Selevinia Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 20 Pages 119-122  
  Keywords trade; cases; products; prices; bazaars; snow leopards; extinction; Xinjiang  
  Abstract The population of snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is plummeting as waterfall in

the last ten years. The illegal trade of snow leopard products is one of the fatal

factors. The biggest range and the biggest population of snow leopard both are in

China, and the largest trade is also in the country. Through questionnaires and

investigation with informants from 2002 to 2012, a lot of data were collected

through variety ways in different regions. In this paper 387 cases of snow leopard

poaching including smuggling routes, product list, price system and product usages

from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region were collected for analysis and discussion. In

the face of rapid development in the west of China, the results showed that our

government did not try to protect the snow leopards, and the text of law was

practically useless. International organizations such as WWF, WCS, IUCN, PANTHERA,

SLT & SLN with SLSS were also powerless and helpless to stop snow leopard poaching

and trading. As a result, the fate of the snow leopard is very bad, and this is

worrying.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1395  
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Author Ming, M., Munkhtsog, B., McCarthy, T., McCarthy, K. url  openurl
  Title Monitor ing of Population Density of Snow Leopard in X injiang Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2011 Publication Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 79-83  
  Keywords Uncia uncia; snow leopard; monitoring method; trace; infrared camera; relative intensity  
  Abstract The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is a very rare species in China. The survey of traces of snow leopard in Kunlun, Altay and Tianshan is them a instep of the Project of Snow Leopard in X injiang supported by the International Snow Leopard Trust ( SLT) and the Xinjiang Conservation Fund (XCF). During the field survey from 2004 to 2010, the Xinjiang Snow Leopard Group ( XSLG) spent about 270 days in over 20 different places, covering over 150 transects totaling nearly 190 km, and found 1- 3 traces per kilometer. The traces of snow leopard recorded include dung, odor, chains of footprints, scraping, paw nail marks, lying mark, fur, urine, bloodstain, leftover of prey corpse, roaring and others. Based on tracer image analyses, the XSLG got to know primarily scopes of the domains, distribution and relative density of the snow leopard in these areas. Then the group began to take infrared photos, conducted survey of food sources of the leopards, investigated fur market and paths of trading, and cases of killing, and carry out civil survey through questionnaire, non government organization community service and research on conflicts between grazing and wild life protection. A total of 36 infrared came ras were laid out, working a total of about 2 094 days or 50 256 hours. A total 71 rolls of film were collected and developed, includ ing 32 clear pictures of snow leopards, thus making up a shooting rate or capture rate of 1.53%. It was ascertained that in Tomur Peak area, there were 5- 8 snow leopards roaming within a range of 250 km2, forming a population density of 2��0- 3��2 per 100 km2. After compar ing the various monitoring results, the advantages and limitations of different monitoring methods have been discussed.  
  Address  
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  Language Chinese Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1303  
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Author Mongolian News url  openurl
  Title 50 wild sheep will be hunted this year Type Newspaper Article
  Year (down) 2011 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 43 Issue 1142 Pages 4  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Notice that the Mongolian government will allow the taking of 4 snow leopards in 2011.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Ardchilal Place of Publication Mongolia Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes http://www.ardchilal.com/ Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1299  
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Author Gronberg, E. url  openurl
  Title Movement patterns of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) around kills based on GPS location clusters Type Report
  Year (down) 2011 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords snow leopard, Panthera, Mongolia, Snow Leopard Trust, predator, prey, kill, behavior  
  Abstract Research concerning movement patterns of wild animals has been advancing since GPS technology arrived. But studying the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is still difficult because of the harsh territory it inhabits in Central Asia. This study took place in south Gobi, Mongolia, and aimed to estimate the time spent at kills and the maximum distance away from kills between visits. Snow leopards were monitored with GPS collars that took a location every five or seven hours. Potential kill sites were established by identifying clusters of GPS-locations in ArcGIS and visited in the field for confirmation. ArcGIS was used to calculate the distance between cluster and GPS-locations. I used two buffer zones (100 m and 500 m radius) to define the time snow leopards spent at kills. It was found that snow leopard age and prey category affected time spent at kills and also that snow leopard sex together with prey category affected the maximum distance moved away from kills between visits. Season had no significant effect on either time at kills or distance moved away from kills between visits. Snow leopards spent on average 3.2 days at their kills in the 100 m buffer zone and 3.5 days at their kills in the 500 m buffer zone. Subadults stayed longer at kills than adults and animals of both age categories spent longer time on larger prey. The mean maximum distance moved away from kills between visits was 179 m in the 100 m buffer zone and 252 m in the 500 m buffer zone. Female snow leopards moved further away from kills between visits than male snow leopards. Both the number of days spent on kills and maximum distance moved away from kills between visits increased when kills consisted of more than one animal. This study has provided some basic information on snow leopard behaviors around their kills but also highlights the need to monitor more snow leopards before more solid conclusions can be drawn as this study was based on based on a relatively small sample.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Grimsö Wildlife Research Station Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1301  
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