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Author Shrestha, A., Thapa, K., Subba, S. A., Dhakal, M., Devkota, B. P., Thapa, G. J., Shrestha, S., Malla, S., Thapa, K. url  openurl
  Title Cats, canines, and coexistence: dietary differentiation between the sympatric Snow Leopard and Grey Wolf in the western landscape of Nepal Himalaya Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Threatened Taxa Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 7 Pages 13815-13821  
  Keywords Canis lupus, dietary pattern, dietary overlap, livestock, Naur, negative interaction, Panthera uncia, scat analysis, sympatry  
  Abstract Understanding the dietary habits of sympatric apex carnivores advances our knowledge of ecological processes and aids their conservation. We compared the diets of the sympatric Snow Leopard Panthera uncia and Grey Wolf Canis lupus using standard micro-histological analyses of scats collected from the western complex of Nepal Himalaya. Our study revealed one of the highest recorded contributions of livestock to the diet of top predators (55% for Grey Wolf and 39% for Snow Leopard) and high dietary overlap (0.82) indicating potential exploitative or interference competition. Their diet composition, however, varied significantly based on their consumption of wild and domestic prey. Limitation in data precludes predicting direction and outcome of inter-specific interactions between these predators. Our findings suggest a high rate of negative interaction with humans in the region and plausibly retaliatory killings of these imperilled predators. To ensure the sustained survival of these two apex carnivores, conservation measures should enhance populations of their wild prey species while reducing livestock losses of the local community through preventive and mitigative interventions.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1485  
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Author Augugliaro, C., Paniccia, C., Janchivlamdan, C., Monti, I. E., Boldbaatar, T., Munkhtsog, B. url  openurl
  Title Mammal inventory in the Mongolian Gobi, with the southeasternmost documented record of the Snow Leopard, Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775), in the country Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Check List Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 575-578  
  Keywords Camera trapping, desert, live trapping, mammal checklist, species richness, threatened species.  
  Abstract Studies on mammal diversity and distribution are an important source to develop conservation and management strategies.

The area located in southern Mongolia, encompassing the Alashan Plateau Semi-Desert and the Eastern Gobi Desert-Steppe ecoregions, is considered strategic for the conservation of threatened species. We surveyed the non-volant mammals in the Small Gobi-A Strictly Protected Area (SPA) and its surroundings, by using camera trapping, live trapping, and occasional sightings. We recorded 18 mammal species belonging to 9 families and 6 orders. Among them, 4 are globally threatened or near-threatened, 2 are included in the CITES Appendix I, and 2 are listed in the Appendix II. Moreover, we provide the southeasternmost record for the Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) in Mongolia, supported by photographic evidence. Our study highlights the importance of this protected area to preserve rare, threatened, and elusive species.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1486  
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Author Farhadinia, M. S., Maheshwari, A., Nawaz, M. A., Ambarli, H., Gritsina, M. A., Koshkin, M. A., Rosen, T., Hinsley, A., Macdonald, D. W. url  openurl
  Title Belt and Road Initiative may create new supplies for illegal wildlife trade in large carnivores Type Miscellaneous
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1487  
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Author Hanson, J. H., Schutgens, M., Leader-Williams, N. url  openurl
  Title What factors best explain attitudes to snow leopards in the Nepal Himalayas? Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-19  
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  Abstract The snow leopard Panthera uncia is a vulnerable wild felid native to mountainous regions of 12 Asian countries. It faces numerous overlapping threats, including killings by herders retaliating against livestock losses, the illegal wildlife trade, loss of prey and habitat, infra- structure, energy and mining developments, and climate change. The species ranges over large territories that often lie outside of protected areas (PA), so coexistence with human populations across its range is key to its persistence. Human attitudes to snow leopards may be an important factor to consider in reducing overlapping threats to this species. How- ever, this nexus has not been widely studied to date. Attitudes to snow leopard conserva- tion, including actors and interventions, may also be a significant aspect of coexistence. These have also received limited empirical attention. This study therefore explored human attitudes to snow leopards and to snow leopard conservation, the motivations for these atti- tudes and the individual factors that best explained them. Using systematic sampling, a quantitative questionnaire was administered to 705 households at two sites in the Nepal Himalayas: Sagarmatha National Park, with a less decentralised governance model, and Annapurna Conservation Area, with a more decentralised model. Linear regression models were the main form of analysis. Based on these, attitudes to snow leopard conservation emerged as the strongest influence on local attitudes to snow leopards, and vice versa. This was true in both PAs, despite their differing management regimes. Other important explana- tory factors included numbers of livestock owned, years of education, household livelihoods and age. Furthermore, a positive intrinsic motivation was the most common reason given by respondents to explain their attitudes to both snow leopards and snow leopard conservation. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to the usual suite of factors that influence atti- tudes to a species, the way in which its conservation is pursued and perceived also needs consideration. How the snow leopard is conserved may strongly influence its coexistence with local communities.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1489  
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Author Li, J., Weckworth, B. V., McCarthy, T. M., Liang, X., Liu, Y., Xing, R., Li, D., Zhang, Y., Xue, Y., Jackson, R., Xiao, L., Cheng, C., Li, S., Xu, F., Ma, M., Yang, X., Diao, K., Gao, Y., Song, D., Nowell, K., He, B., Li, Y., McCarthy, K., Paltsyn, M. Y., Sharma, K., Mishra, C., Schaller, G. B., Lu, Z., Beissinger, S. R. url  openurl
  Title Defining priorities for global snow leopard conservation landscapes Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 241 Issue 108387 Pages 1-10  
  Keywords Panthera uncia, Conservation prioritization, Landscape Conservation Unit, Connectivity, Linkage  
  Abstract The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is an apex predator on the Tibetan Plateau and in the surrounding mountain ranges. It is listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN's Red List. The large home range and low population densities of this species mandate range-wide conservation prioritization. Two efforts for range-wide snow leopard conservation planning have been conducted based on expert opinion, but both were constrained by limited knowledge and the difficulty of evaluating complex processes, such as connectivity across large landscapes. Here, we compile > 6000 snow leopard occurrence records from across its range and corresponding environmental covariates to build a model of global snow leopard habitat suitability. Using spatial prioritization tools, we identi!ed seven large continuous habitat patches as global snow leopard Landscape Conservation Units (LCUs). Each LCU faces differing threat levels from poaching, anthropogenic development, and climate change. We identi!ed ten po- tential inter-LCU linkages, and centrality analysis indicated that Tianshan-Pamir-Hindu Kush-Karakorum, Altai, and the linkage between them play a critical role in maintaining the global snow leopard habitat connectivity.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1490  
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Author Aruge, S., Batool, H., Khan, F. M., Abbas, F. I., Janjua, S url  openurl
  Title A pilot study�genetic diversity and population structure of snow leopards of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, using molecular techniques. Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication PeerJ Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 7672 Pages 1-14  
  Keywords Population, Genetics, Panthera uncia, Pakistan, Molecular markers  
  Abstract Background: The Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountain ranges in Pakistan�s northern areas are a natural habitat of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia syn. Uncia uncia) but the ecological studies on this animal are scarce since it is human shy by nature and lives in dif!cult mountainous tracts. The pilot study is conducted to exploit the genetic diversity and population structure of the snow leopard in this selected natural habitat of the member of the wildcat family in Pakistan.

Method: About 50 putative scat samples of snow leopard from !ve localities of Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) along with a control sample of zoo maintained male snow leopard were collected for comparison. Signi!cant quality and quantity of genomic DNA was extracted from scat samples using combined Zhang�phenol�chloroform method and successful ampli!cation of cytochrome c oxidase I gene (190 bp) using mini-barcode primers, seven simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers and Y-linked AMELY gene (200 bp) was done.

Results: Cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequencing suggested that 33/50 (66%) scat samples were of snow leopard. AMELY primer suggested that out of 33 ampli!ed samples, 21 (63.63%) scats were from male and 12 (36.36%) from female leopards. Through successful ampli!cation of DNA of 25 out of 33 (75.75%) scat samples using SSR markers, a total of 68 alleles on seven SSR loci were identi!ed, showing low heterozygosity, while high gene "ow between population.

Discussion: The low gene flow rate among the population results in low genetic diversity causing decreased diversi!cation. This affects the adaptability to climatic changes, thus ultimately resulting in decreased population size of the species.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1491  
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Author Farrington, J., Tsering, D. url  openurl
  Title Human-snow leopard conflict in the Chang Tang region of Tibet, China Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 237 Issue Pages 504-513  
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  Abstract In April 2006, the authors conducted a preliminary human-wildlife conflict survey of 300 livestock herders in Shainza, Nyima, and Tsonyi Counties in northern Tibet's sparsely-populated Chang Tang region. This survey revealed a widespread but previously undocumented problem of snow leopard predation on livestock. In June and July 2007, an exploratory human-snow leopard conflict survey of 234 herders in the above counties found that 65.8% of respondents had experienced conflict with snow leopards in the form of livestock kills, with 77.3% of the most recent incidents occurring in the previous five years. These incidents were concentrated in winter and spring and a surprising 39.6% of incidents occurred during the day, often with herders present. Fifteen exploratory snow leopard sign transects totaling 14.85 km were conducted. Abundant snow leopard scrapes as well as pug marks were found, confirming the presence of these secretive cats. A total of 521 blue sheep were counted on and off sign transects indicating widespread availability of wild snow leopard prey. The recent surge in reported snow leopard conflict is likely due to increasing human and livestock populations, establishment of two multiple-use nature reserves accompanied by improved enforcement of wildlife protection laws, and a regional gun and trap ban launched in 2001. However, retaliatory killing of snow leopards in the survey area continues to be a potential threat. Therefore, measures are needed to reduce livestock kills by snow leopards, including corral improvements, improved guarding, establishment of livestock compensation schemes, and educating herders about snow leopard behavior.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1600  
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Author Rovero, F., Augugliaro, C., Havmoller, R. W., Groff, C., Zimmerman, F., Oberosler, V., Tenan, S. url  doi
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  Title Co-occurrence of snow leopard Panthera uncia, Siberian ibex Capra sibirica and livestock: potential relationships and effects Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-7  
  Keywords Altai mountains, camera trapping, human� wildlife conflict, Mongolia, occupancy, occurrence interactions, Siberian ibex, snow leopard  
  Abstract Understanding the impact of livestock on native

wildlife is of increasing conservation relevance. For the

Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia, wild prey reduction,

intensifying human�wildlife conflicts and retaliatory

killings are severe threats potentially exacerbated by the

presence of livestock. Elucidating patterns of co-occurrence

of snow leopards, wild ungulate prey, and livestock, can be

used to assess the compatibility of pastoralism with conservation.

We used camera trapping to study the interactions of

livestock, Siberian ibex Capra sibirica and snow leopards in

a national park in the Altai mountains, Mongolia. We obtained

 detections of wild mammals and  of domestic

ungulates, dogs and humans. Snow leopards and Siberian

ibex were recorded  and  times, respectively. Co-occurrence

modelling showed that livestock had a higher estimated

occupancy (.) than ibex, whose occupancy was

lower in the presence of livestock (.) than in its absence

(.�. depending on scenarios modelled). Snow leopard

occupancy did not appear to be affected by the presence of

livestock or ibex but the robustness of such inference was

limited by uncertainty around the estimates. Although our

sampling at presumed snow leopard passing sites may have

led to fewer ibex detections, results indicate that livestock

may displace wild ungulates, but may not directly affect

the occurrence of snow leopards. Snow leopards could still

be threatened by livestock, as overstocking can trigger

human�carnivore conflicts and hamper the conservation

of large carnivores. Further research is needed to assess

the generality and strength of our results.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1465  
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Author Maheshwari, A., Niraj, S. K url  openurl
  Title Monitoring illegal trade in snow leopards: 2003e2014 Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication Elsevier Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1 -6  
  Keywords Snow leopard, Illegal trade, Central and southern Asia, Conservation  
  Abstract Illegal trade in snow leopards (Panthera uncia) has been identified as one of the major

threats to long-term survival of the species in the wild. To quantify severity of the threats

to dwindling snow leopard population, we examined market and questionnaire surveys,

and information from the published and unpublished literature on illegal trade and

poaching of snow leopards.We collected information from 11 of the 12 snow leopard range

counties in central and southern Asia, barring Kazakhstan, and reported 439 snow leopards

(88 records) in illegal trade during 2003e2014, which represents a loss of approximately

8.4%e10.9% snow leopard population (assuming mid-point population of 5240 to

minimum population of 4000 individuals) in a period of 12 years. Our data suggested a 61%

decadal increase in snow leopard trade during 2003e2012 compared with 1993e2002,

while taking the note of significant strengthening of wildlife enforcement and crime

control network in the decades of 2000s and 2010s. We found 50% prosecution rate of

snow leopard crimes resulting in only 20% conviction rate globally. Many limitations e.g.,

secretive nature of illegal trade, ill developed enforcement mechanism, poor and passive

documentation of snow leopards' seizures, restricted us to reflect actual trend of snow

leopards' illegal trade. Even on a conservative scale the present situation is alarming and

may detrimental to snow leopard conservation. We propose an effective networking of

enforcement efforts and coordination among the law enforcement agencies, efficient

collection of data and data management, and sharing of intelligence in snow leopard range

countries, could be useful in curbing illegal trade in snow leopards in central and southern

Asia.
 
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1466  
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Author Schutgens, M. G., Hanson, J. H., Baral, N., Ale, S. B. doi  openurl
  Title Visitors’ willingness to pay for snow leopard Panthera uncia conservation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2018 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1 - 10  
  Keywords Carnivore conservation, contingent valuation, economic valuation, existence value, Panthera uncia, snow leopard, threatened species, wildlife policy  
  Abstract The Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia experiences

persecution across its habitat in Central Asia, particularly

from herders because of livestock losses. Given the

popularity of snow leopards worldwide, transferring some

of the value attributed by the international community to

these predators may secure funds and support for their conservation.

We administered contingent valuation surveys to

 international visitors to the Annapurna Conservation

Area, Nepal, between May and June , to determine

their willingness to pay a fee to support the implementation

of a Snow Leopard Conservation Action Plan. Of the %of

visitors who stated they would pay a snow leopard conservation

fee in addition to the existing entry fee, the mean

amount that they were willing to pay was USD  per trip.

The logit regression model showed that the bid amount, the

level of support for implementing the Action Plan, and the

number of days spent in the Conservation Area were significant

predictors of visitors’ willingness to pay. The main reasons

stated by visitors for their willingness to pay were a

desire to protect the environment and an affordable fee. A

major reason for visitors’ unwillingness to pay was that

the proposed conservation fee was too expensive for them.

This study represents the first application of economic valuation

to snow leopards, and is relevant to the conservation of

threatened species in the Annapurna Conservation Area

and elsewhere.
 
  Address http://snowleopardnetwork.org/bibliography/Schutgensetal_2018.pdf  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1467  
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