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Author Korablev, M. P., Poyarkov, A. D., Karnaukhov, A. S., Zvychaynaya, E. Y., Kuksin, A. N., Malykh, S. V., Istomov, S. V., Spitsyn, S. V., Aleksandrov, D. Y., Hernandez-Blanco, J. A., Munkhtsog, B., Munkhtogtokh, O., Putintsev, N. I., Vereshchagin, A. S., Becmurody, A., Afzunov, S., Rozhnov, V. V. url  openurl
  Title Large-scale and fine-grain population structure and genetic diversity of snow leopards (Panthera uncia Schreber, 1776) from the northern and western parts of the range with an emphasis on the Russian population. Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Conservation Genetics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Snow leopard, Panthera uncia, Microsatellites, Heterozygosity, Population structure, Noninvasive survey, Scat, Subspecies  
  Abstract The snow leopard (Panthera uncia Schreber, 1776) population in Russia and Mongolia is situated at the northern edge of the range, where instability of ecological conditions and of prey availability may serve as prerequisites for demographic instability and, consequently, for reducing the genetic diversity. Moreover, this northern area of the species distribution is connected with the western and central parts by only a few small fragments of potential habitats in the Tian-Shan spurs in China and Kazakhstan. Given this structure of the range, the restriction of gene flow between the northern and other regions of snow leopard distribution can be expected. Under these conditions, data on population genetics would be extremely important for assessment of genetic diversity, population structure and gene flow both at regional and large-scale level. To investigate large-scale and fine-grain population structure and levels of genetic diversity we analyzed 108 snow leopards identified from noninvasively collected scat samples from Russia and Mongolia (the northern part of the range) as well as from Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (the western part of the range) using panel of eight polymorphic microsatellites. We found low to moderate levels of genetic diversity in the studied populations. Among local habitats, the highest heterozygosity and allelic richness were recorded in Kyrgyzstan (He = 0.66 ± 0.03, Ho = 0.70 ± 0.04, Ar = 3.17) whereas the lowest diversity was found in a periphery subpopulation in Buryatia Republic of Russia (He = 0.41 ± 0.12, Ho = 0.29 ± 0.05, Ar = 2.33). In general, snow leopards from the western range exhibit greater genetic diversity (He = 0.68 ± 0.04, Ho = 0.66 ± 0.03, Ar = 4.95) compared to those from the northern range (He = 0.60 ± 0.06, Ho = 0.49 ± 0.02, Ar = 4.45). In addition, we have identified signs of fragmentation in the northern habitat, which have led to significant genetic divergence between subpopulations in Russia. Multiple analyses of genetic structure support considerable genetic differentiation between the northern and western range parts, which may testify to subspecies subdivision of snow leopards from these regions. The observed patterns of genetic structure are evidence for delineation of several management units within the studied populations, requiring individual approaches for conservation initiatives, particularly related to translocation events. The causes for the revealed patterns of genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity are discussed.  
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  Call Number Serial 1633  
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Author Bhatia, S., Suryawanshi, K., Redpath, S., Namgail, S., Mishra, C. url  openurl
  Title Understanding People's Relationship With Wildlife in Trans-Himalayan Folklore. Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Frontiers in Environmental Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 595169 Pages 1-10  
  Keywords attitudes, culture, human-wildlife, narrative, stories, storytelling  
  Abstract People's views and values for wild animals are often a result of their experiences and traditional knowledge. Local folklore represents a resource that can enable an understanding of the nature of human-wildlife interactions, especially the underlying cultural values. Using archival searches and semi-structured interviews, we collected narratives about the ibex (Capra sibirica) (n = 69), and its predators, the wolf (Canis lupus) (n = 52) and the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) (n = 43), in Ladakh, India. We compared these stories to those of a mythical carnivore called seng ge or snow lion (n = 19), frequently referenced in local Tibetan Buddhist folklore and believed to share many of the traits commonly associated with snow leopards (except for livestock depredation). We then categorized the values along social-cultural, ecological and psychological dimensions. We found that the ibex was predominantly associated with utilitarianism and positive symbolism. Both snow leopard and wolf narratives referenced negative affective and negative symbolic values, though more frequently in the case of wolves. Snow leopard narratives largely focused on utilitarian and ecologistic values. In contrast, snow lion narratives were mostly associated with positive symbolism. Our results suggest that especially for snow leopards and wolves, any potentially positive symbolic associations appeared to be overwhelmed by negative sentiments because of their tendency to prey on livestock, unlike in the case of the snow lion. Since these values reflect people's real and multifarious interactions with wildlife, we recommend paying greater attention to understanding the overlaps between natural and cultural heritage conservation to facilitate human-wildlife coexistence.  
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  Call Number Serial 1632  
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Author Samelius, G., Suryawanshi, K., Frank, J., Agvaantseren, B., Baasandamba, E., Mijiddorj, T., Johansson, O., Tumursukh, L., Mishra, C. url  openurl
  Title Keeping predators out: testing fences to reduce livestock depredation at night-time corrals Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-7  
  Keywords Canis lupus, carnivore conservation, coexistence, conflict mitigation, conservation conflict, livestock depreda- tion, Panthera uncia, preventative measure  
  Abstract Livestock depredation by large carnivores is a global conservation challenge, and mitigation measures to reduce livestock losses are crucial for the coexistence of large carnivores and people. Various measures are employed to reduce livestock depredation but their effectiveness has rarely been tested. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of tall fences to reduce livestock losses to snow leopards Panthera uncia and wolves Canis lupus at night-time corrals at the winter camps of livestock herders in the Tost Mountains in southern Mongolia. Self-reported livestock losses at the fenced corrals were reduced from a mean loss of 3.9 goats and sheep per family and winter prior to the study to zero losses in the two winters of the study. In contrast, self-reported livestock losses in winter pastures, and during the rest of the year, when herders used different camps, remained high, which indicates that livestock losses were reduced because of the fences, not because of temporal variation in predation pressure. Herder attitudes towards snow leopards were positive and remained positive during the study, whereas attitudes towards wolves, which attacked livestock also in summer when herders moved out on the steppes, were negative and worsened during the study. This study showed that tall fences can be very effective at reducing night-time losses at corrals and we conclude that fences can be an important tool for snow leopard conservation and for facilitating the coexistence of snow leopards and people.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1492  
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Author Poyarkov, A. D., Munkhtsog, B., Korablev, M. P., Kuksin, A. N., Alexandrov, D. Y., Chistopolova, M. D.,Hernandez-Blanco, J. A., Munkhtogtokh, O., Karnaukhov, A. S., Lkhamsuren, N., Bayaraa, M., Jackson, R. M., Maheshwari, A., Rozhnov, V. V. url  openurl
  Title Assurance of the existence of a trans-boundary population of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) at Tsagaanshuvuut – Tsagan- Shibetu SPA at the Mongolia-Russia border Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Integrative Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 15 Pages 224-231  
  Keywords FST, home range, Panthera uncia, snow leopard, trans-boundary population  
  Abstract The existence of a trans-boundary population of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) that inhabits the massifs of Tsagaanshuvuut (Mongolia) – Tsagan-Shibetu (Russia) was determined through non-invasive genetic analysis of scat samples and by studying the structure of territory use by a collared female individual. The genetic analysis included species identification of samples through sequencing of a fragment of the cytochrome b gene and individual identification using a panel of 8 microsatellites. The home range of a female snow leopard marked with a satellite Global Positioning System (GPS) collar was represented by the minimum convex polygon method (MCP) 100, the MCP 95 method and the fixed kernel 95 method. The results revealed insignificant genetic differentiation between snow leopards that inhabit both massifs (minimal fixation index [FST]), and the data testify to the unity of the cross-border group. Moreover, 5 common individuals were identified from Mongolian and Russian territories. This finding clearly shows that their home range includes territories of both countries. In addition, regular movement of a collared snow leopard in Mongolia and Russia confirmed the existence of a cross-border snow leopard group. These data support that trans-boundary conservation is important for snow leopards in both countries. We conclude that it is crucial for Russia to study the northern range of snow leopards in Asia.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1493  
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Author Johansson, O., Samelius, G., Wikberg, E, Chapron, G., Mishra, C., Low, M url  openurl
  Title Identification errors in camera- trap studies result in systematic population overestimation Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 10 Issue 6393 Pages 1-10  
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  Abstract Reliable assessments of animal abundance are key for successful conservation of endangered species. For elusive animals with individually-unique markings, camera-trap surveys are a benchmark standard for estimating local and global population abundance. Central to the reliability of resulting abundance estimates is the assumption that individuals are accurately identified from photographic captures. To quantify the risk of individual misidentification and its impact on population abundance estimates we performed an experiment under controlled conditions in which 16 captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia) were camera-trapped on 40 occasions and eight observers independently identified individuals and recaptures. Observers misclassified 12.5% of all capture occasions, resulting in systematically inflated population abundance estimates on average by one third (mean ± SD = 35 ± 21%). Our results show that identifying individually-unique individuals from camera-trap photos may not be as reliable as previously believed, implying that elusive and endangered species could be less abundant than current estimates indicate.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1496  
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Author Farrington, J., Tsering, D. url  openurl
  Title Snow leopard distribution in the Chang Tang region of Tibet, China Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 23 Issue Pages  
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  Abstract In 2006 and 2007, the authors conducted human-wildlife conflict surveys in the Tibet Autonomous Region’s (TAR) Shainza, Nyima, and Tsonyi Counties, located in the TAR’s remote Chang Tang region. At this time, prior knowledge of the snow leopard in this vast 700,000 km2 region was limited to just eight firsthand snow leopard sign and conflict location records and 15 secondhand records. These surveys revealed a previously undocumented and growing problem of human-snow leopard conflict. The 2007 survey also yielded 39 new snow leopard conflict incident locations and 24 new snow leopard sign locations. Next, snow leopard telephone interviews and mapping exercises were conducted with Tibet Forestry Bureau staff that yielded an additional 63 and 144 new snow leopard conflict and sighting location records, respectively. These 270 new snow leopard location records, together with 39 records collected by other observers from 1988 to 2009, were compiled into a snow leopard distribution map for the Chang Tang. This effort greatly expanded knowledge of the snow leopard’s distribution in this region which remains one of the least understood of the snow leopard’s key range areas. New knowledge gained on snow leopard distribution in the Chang Tang through this exercise will help identify human-snow leopard conflict hot spots and inform design of human-snow leopard conflict mitigation and conservation strategies for northwest Tibet. Nevertheless, extensive additional field verification work will be required to definitively delineate snow leopard distribution in the Chang Tang. Importantly, since 2006, a number of major transportation infrastructure projects have made the Chang Tang more accessible, including paving of highways, new railroads, and new airports. This has led to a greatly increased number of tourists visiting western Tibet, particularly Mt. Kailash and Lake Manasarovar. At the same time, large areas of the Chang Tang have been fenced for livestock pastures as part of government initiatives to allocate pasturelands to individual families. All three of these developments have a large potential to cause disturbance to snow leopards and their prey species, including by hindering their movements and degrading their habitat. Therefore, future conservation measures in the Chang Tang will need to insure that development activities and the growing number of visitors to the Chang Tang do not adversely affect the distribution of snow leopards and their prey species or directly degrade their habitat.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1601  
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Author Rode, J., Pelletier, A., Fumey, J., Rode, S., Cabanat, A. L., Ouvrard, A., Chaix, B., White, B., Harnden, M., Xuan, N. T., Vereshagin, A., Casane, D. url  openurl
  Title Diachronic monitoring of snow leopards at Sarychat-Ertash State Reserve (Kyrgyzstan) through scat genotyping: a pilot study Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication bioRxiv Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-21  
  Keywords snow leopard, noninvasive genotyping, population dynamics, microsatellite, relatedness, diachronic monitoring, citizen science, Central Asia  
  Abstract Snow leopards (Panthera uncia) are a keystone species of Central Asia’s high mountain ecosystem. The species is listed as vulnerable and is elusive, preventing accurate population assessments that could inform conservation actions. Non-invasive genetic monitoring conducted by citizen scientists offers avenues to provide key data on this species that would otherwise be inaccessible. From 2011 to 2015, OSI-Panthera citizen science expeditions tracked signs of presence of snow leopards along transects in the main valleys and crests of the Sarychat-Ertash State Reserve (Kyrgyzstan). Scat samples were genotyped at seven autosomal microsatellite loci and at a X/Y locus for sex identification, which allowed estimating a minimum of 11 individuals present in the reserve from 2011 to 2015. The genetic recapture of 7 of these individuals enabled diachronic monitoring, providing indications of individuals’ movements throughout the reserve. We found putative family relationships between several individuals. Our results demonstrate the potential of this citizen science program to get a precise description of a snow leopard population through time.  
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  Call Number Serial 1602  
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Author Murali,R., Ikhagvajav, P., Amankul, V., Jumabay, K., Sharma, K., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Suryawanshi, K., Mishra, C. url  openurl
  Title Ecosystem service dependence in livestock and crop-based Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Arid Environments Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 180 Issue Pages 1-10  
  Keywords Provisioning services Arid ecosystems Local communities Land-use  
  Abstract Globally, in semi-arid and arid landscapes, there is an

ongoing transition from livestock-production systems to crop-production

systems, and in many parts of Asia's arid mountains, mining for minerals

is also increasing. These changes are accompanied by a change in the

generation and quality of ecosystem services (ES), which can impact

human well-being. In this study, to better understand the impacts of

such transitions, we quantified ES in two crop-based and three

livestock-based production systems in the arid and semi-arid landscapes

of the High Himalaya and Central Asia, specifically in the Indian

Himalaya, Kyrgyz Tien Shan, and Mongolian Altai. Our results showed 1)

high economic dependence (3.6–38 times the respective annual household

income) of local farmers on provisioning ES, with the economic value of

ES being greater in livestock-production systems (7.4–38 times the

annual household income) compared to crop-production systems (3.6–3.7

times the annual household income); 2) ES input into cashmere

production, the main commodity from the livestock-production systems,

was 13–18 times greater than the price of cashmere received by the

farmer; and 3) in the livestock production systems affected by mining,

impacts on ES and quality of life were reported to be negative by

majority of the respondents. We conclude that livestock-based systems

may be relatively more vulnerable to degrading impacts of mining and

other ongoing developments due to their dependence on larger ES resource

catchments that tend to have weaker land tenure and are prone to

fragmentation. In contrast to the general assumption of low value of ES

in arid and semi-arid landscapes due to relatively low primary

productivity, our study underscores the remarkably high importance of ES

in supporting local livelihoods.
 
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  Call Number Serial 1603  
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Author Karnaukhov А. S., Korablev М. P., Kuksin А. N., Malykh S. V., Poyarkov А. D., Spitsyn S. V., Chistopolova М. D., Hernandez-Blanco J. A. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard Population Monitoring Guidebook (English) Type Guidebook
  Year (down) 2020 Publication WWF Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 165  
  Keywords English  
  Abstract The “Snow Leopard Population Monitoring Guidebook” is the result of a multiyear effort to study and monitor the status of key snow leopard populations in the Russian Federation conducted by WWF Russia specialists alongside colleagues in protected areas and the Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution (Russian Academy of Sciences). The book provides the most recent data regarding the distribution and population of the snow leopard in three administrative subjects of the Russian Federation – Republics of Altai, Tyva, and Buryatiya. Optimal survey routes and a grid network for camera-trapping stations are discussed and are based on a previously-developed program for standardized monitoring and surveying of the snow leopard population. The most important part of this publication is the analysis of methodologies for evaluating the status of population groups of this rare cat – from the traditional route census approach to innovative systems for automated collection of field data. In addition, the results of multi-year work analyze snow leopard nutrition and evaluate the genetic diversity of the snow leopard population in Russia.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1604  
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Author Karnaukhov А. S., Korablev М. P., Kuksin А. N., Malykh S. V., Poyarkov А. D., Spitsyn S. V., Chistopolova М. D., Hernandez-Blanco J. A. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard Population Monitoring Guidebook (Russian) Type Guidebook
  Year (down) 2020 Publication WWF Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 164  
  Keywords Russian  
  Abstract The “Snow Leopard Population Monitoring Guidebook” is the result of a multiyear effort to study and monitor the status of key snow leopard populations in the Russian Federation conducted by WWF Russia specialists alongside colleagues in protected areas and the Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution (Russian Academy of Sciences). The book provides the most recent data regarding the distribution and population of the snow leopard in three administrative subjects of the Russian Federation – Republics of Altai, Tyva, and Buryatiya. Optimal survey routes and a grid network for camera-trapping stations are discussed and are based on a previously-developed program for standardized monitoring and surveying of the snow leopard population. The most important part of this publication is the analysis of methodologies for evaluating the status of population groups of this rare cat – from the traditional route census approach to innovative systems for automated collection of field data. In addition, the results of multi-year work analyze snow leopard nutrition and evaluate the genetic diversity of the snow leopard population in Russia.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1605  
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