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Author Johnson, W.E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W.J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S.J.
Title The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 311 Issue Pages 74-77
Keywords carnivore; classification; divergence; Dna; Felidae; fossil; lineages; Miocene; mitochondrial; Molecular; phylogeny; radiation; taxonomic
Abstract Modern felid species descend from relatively recent (G11 million years ago) divergence and speciation events that produced successful predatory carnivores worldwide but that have confounded taxonomic classifications. A highly resolved molecular phylogeny with divergence dates for all living cat species, derived from autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial gene segments (22,789 base pairs) and 16 fossil calibrations define eight principal lineages produced through at least 10 intercontinental migrations facilitated by sea-level fluctuations. A ghost lineage analysis indicates that available felid fossils underestimate (i.e., unrepresented basal branch length) first occurrence by an average of 76%, revealing a low representation of felid lineages in paleontological remains. The phylogenetic performance of distinct gene classes showed that Y-chromosome segments are appreciably more informative than mitochondrial DNA, X-linked, or autosomal genes in resolving the rapid Felidae species radiation.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 908 Serial 502
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Author Warren E.Johnson, E.E.
Title The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 311 Issue Pages 73-77
Keywords classification; divergence; Dna; Felidae; genetics; Miocene; mitochondrial; phylogeny; radiation; species; taxonomic
Abstract Modern felid species descend from relatively recent (<11 million years ago) divergence and

speciation events that produced successful predatory carnivores worldwide but that have

confounded taxonomic classifications. A highly resolved molecular phylogeny with divergence dates

for all living cat species, derived from autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial gene

segments (22,789 base pairs) and 16 fossil calibrations define eight principal lineages produced

through at least 10 intercontinental migrations facilitated by sea-level fluctuations. A ghost lineage

analysis indicates that available felid fossils underestimate (i.e., unrepresented basal branch

length) first occurrence by an average of 76%, revealing a low representation of felid lineages

in paleontological remains. The phylogenetic performance of distinct gene classes showed that

Y-chromosome segments are appreciably more informative than mitochondrial DNA, X-linked,

or autosomal genes in resolving the rapid Felidae species radiation.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Washington D.C. Editor Jill Pecon-Slattery, W.J.M., Agostinho Antunes, Emma Teeling, Stephen J.O'Brien
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 880 Serial 1008
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Author Lovari, S., Minder, I., Ferretti, F., Mucci, N., Randi, E., Pellizzi, B.
Title Common and snow leopards share prey, but not habitats: competition avoidance by large predators Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 291 Issue Pages 127-135
Keywords coexistence; resource partitioning; food habits; Panthera uncia; Panthera pardus.
Abstract Resource exploitation and behavioural interference underlie competition among

carnivores. Competition is reduced by specializing on different prey and/or spatiotemporal

separation, usually leading to different food habits. We predicted that

two closely related species of large cats, the endangered snow leopard and the

near-threatened common leopard, living in sympatry, would coexist through

habitat separation and exploitation of different prey species. In central Himalaya,

we assessed (2006–2010) habitat and diet overlap between these carnivores. The

snow leopard used grassland and shrubland, whereas the common leopard

selected forest. Contrary to our prediction, snow leopard and common leopard

preyed upon similar wild (Himalayan tahr, musk deer) and domestic species (Bos

spp., dogs). Dietary overlap between snow leopard and common leopard was 69%

(yearly), 76% (colder months) and 60% (warmer months). Thus, habitat separation

should be the result of other factors, most likely avoidance of interspecific

aggression. Habitat separation may not always lead to the use of different prey.

Avoidance of interspecific aggression, rather than exploitation of different

resources, could allow the coexistence of potentially competing large predators.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1402
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Author Woodroffe, R.; Ginsberg, J.R.
Title Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication Science Washington D.C. Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 280 Issue 5372 Pages 2126-2128
Keywords edge-effects; extinction; human-animal-conflict; mortality; population-size; protected-areas; browse; edge effects; Human; Animal; conflict; population; protected; area; 590
Abstract Theory predicts that small populations may be driven to extinction by random fluctuations in demography and loss of genetic diversity through drift. However, population size is a poor predictor of extinction in large carnivores inhabiting protected areas. Conflict with people on reserve borders is the major cause of mortality in such populations, so that border areas represent population sinks. The species most likely to disappear from small reserves are those that range widely-and are therefore most exposed to threats on reserve borders-irrespective of population size. Conservation efforts that combat only stochastic processes are therefore unlikely to avert extinction.
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 351 Serial 1028
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Author Kachel, S., Anderson, K., Shokirov, Q.
Title Predicting carnivore habitat use and livestock depredation risk with false-positive multi-state occupancy models Type Journal Article
Year 2022 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 271 Issue 109588 Pages 1-10
Keywords Bayesian hierarchical model,False-positive,Multi-state occupancy,Human-carnivore conflict,Livestock depredation,Snow leopard,Lynx,Wolf,Bear
Abstract The cycle of livestock depredation and retaliatory killing constitutes a major threat to large carnivores worldwide and imposes considerable hardships on human communities. Mitigation efforts are often undertaken with little knowledge of ecological underpinnings and patterns of depredation, limiting conservationists' ability to develop, prioritize, and evaluate solutions. Carnivore detection and depredation data from interviews in affected communities may help address this gap, but such data are often prone to false-positive uncertainty. To address these challenges in the Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan we collected snow leopard, lynx, wolf, and bear detection and depredation reports from local communities via semi-structured interviews. We used a novel hierarchical multi-species multi-state occupancy model that accounted for potential false-positives to investigate carnivore site use and depredation concurrently with respondents' apparent vulnerability to that risk. Estimated false-positive probabilities were small, but failure to account for them overstated site use probabilities and depredation risk for all species. Although individual vulnerability was low, depredation was nonetheless commonplace. Carnivore site use was driven by clear habitat associations, but we did not identify any clearly important large-scale spatial correlates of depredation risk despite considerable spatial variation in that risk. Respondents who sheltered livestock in household corrals reinforced with wire mesh were less likely to report snow leopard depredations. Reducing depredation and retaliation at adequately large scales in the Pamirs will likely require a portfolio of species-specific strategies, including widespread proactive corral improvements. Our approach expanded inference on the often-cryptic processes surrounding human-carnivore conflict even though structured wildlife data were scarce.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1681
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Author Shrestha, R.; Wegge, P.; Koirala, R.A.
Title Summer diets of wild and domestic ungulates in Nepal Himalaya Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 266 Issue Pages 111-119
Keywords argali; blue sheep; Capra hircus; diet; faecal analysis; fecal analysis; mountain ungulates; Ovis ammon hodgsoni; pseudois nayaur
Abstract The selection of summer forage by three sympatric ungulates in the Damodar Kunda region of upper Mustang in

north Nepal was studied to assess the extent of food overlap between them. To compare their diets, a microhistological technique of faecal analysis was used, adjusted for inherent biases by comparing it with bite-count data obtained in domestic goats. Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni, naur (blue sheep or bharal) Pseudois nayaur and domestic goat Capra hircus consumed mostly forbs, graminoids and browse, respectively. The proportions of food items in their diets were significantly different both at the plant species (P<0.02) and at the forage category level (P<0.001). Except for sharing three common plants (Agrostis sp., Stipa sp. and Potentilla fruticosa), dietary overlap at the species level was quite low. At the forage category level, naur and domestic goat overlapped more than the other ungulate pairs. Although all three species were opportunistic, mixed feeders, argali was a more selective forb specialist grazer than the other two ungulates. Owing to some spatial separation and little dietary overlap, interspecific competition for summer forage was low. If animal densities increase, however, goats are expected to compete more with naur than with argali because of their more similar diets. Owing to differences in forage selection by argali and naur throughout their large geographical ranges, reflecting adaptations to local ecological conditions, inferences regarding forage competition between domestic livestock and these two wild caprins need to be made from local, site-specific studies, rather than from general diet comparisons.
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Publisher The Zoological Society of London Place of Publication London Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 934 Serial 888
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Author Blomqvist, L.
Title Captive Snow Leopard Report for 1989 Type Journal Article
Year 1989 Publication International Zoo News Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 265 Issue Pages 5-14
Keywords browse; captivity; distribution; status; zoo; zoos
Abstract
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 141 Serial 162
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Author Namgail, T.; Fox, J.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.
Title Habitat segregation between sympatric Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni and blue sheep Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 262 Issue Pages 57-63
Keywords argali; Ovis ammon hodgsoni; blue sheep; pseudois nayaur; Habitat selection; resource partitioning; niche relationship; 5200
Abstract Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni and blue sheep Pseudois nayaur have almost completely overlapping distributions encompassing most of the Tibetan plateau and its margins. Such a sympatric distribution of related species with similar ecological requirements implies that there is some degree of resource partitioning. This may be accomplished on the basis of habitat and/or diet separation. This study evaluated such ecological separation on the basis of physical habitat partitioning by these two sympatric ungulates in Hemis High Altitude National Park, Ladakh, India, in an area where the argali established a small new population in 1978. Such separation was tested for

on the basis of expected difference between the species in their proximity to cliffs, associated with species-specific anti-predator behaviour. Tibetan argali selected habitats away from cliffs while blue sheep selected habitats close to cliffs. Blue sheep also selected steep slopes whereas argali selected gentle slopes. The two species did not differ

in their use of habitats in terms of elevation. They did, however, differ in their use of plant communities; blue sheep selected sub-shrub and grass-dominated communities whilst argali selected forb-dominated communities. We suggest that the two species coexist in this site as a result of the differential use of habitat associated with their

species-specific anti-predator strategies.
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Notes Full text available at URL Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 505 Serial 710
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Author Salvatori, M., Tenan, S., Oberosler, V., Augugliaro, C., Christe, P., Groff, C., Krofel, M., Zimmermann, F., Rovero, F.
Title Co-occurrence of snow leopard, wolf and Siberian ibex under livestock encroachment into protected areas across the Mongolian Altai Type Journal Article
Year 2021 Publication Biological Conservatio Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 261 Issue 109294 Pages 1-14
Keywords Camera-trapping, Panthera uncia, Canis lupus, Capra sibirica, Occupancy, Human-wildlife conflicts, Activity pattern
Abstract In countries such as Mongolia, where globalization of the cashmere market has spurred herders to massively increase their livestock numbers, an important conservation concern is the effect of livestock encroachment on wildlife. This is especially important inside protected areas (PAs), which often represent the last refugia for threatened large mammals. We used camera-traps to sample four areas with different protection status across the Mongolian Altai Mountains, and targeted a predator-prey system composed of livestock, one large herbivore, the Siberian ibex, and two large carnivores, the snow leopard and the wolf. To determine the effect of livestock on habitat use by the wild species and their spatio-temporal co-occurrence we applied an occupancy framework explicitly developed for modelling interacting species. We recorded a widespread presence of domestic animals in the PAs, and observed avoidance of sites used by livestock by snow leopard and ibex, while wolves tended to co-occur with it. Snow leopard and ibex showed clear mutual co-occurrence, indicating a tight predator-prey relationship. Results provide evidence that, at the scale of sites sampled primarily to maximise snow leopard detections, grazing livestock interferes with wild species by inducing avoidance in snow leopards, and attraction in wolves. We suggest that (1) PAs management should enforce real grazing limitations on the ground, especially in the core areas of the parks; (2) new policies incorporating wildlife conservation into government subsidies to pastoralists should be envisaged, to prevent increasing displacement of snow leopards and ibex; (3) as wolves co- occurred with livestock, with the potential for human-wildlife conflicts, we encourage the use of a set of prevention techniques to mitigate livestock depredation.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1659
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Author Reading, R.P.; Mix, H.M.; Badamjaviin L.; Feh, L.; Kane, D.; Dulamtseren, S.; Enkhbold S.
Title Status and distribution of khulan Equus hemionus in Mongolia Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 254 Issue Pages 381-389
Keywords gobi; Equus hemionus; Khulan; Mongolia; wild ass; 5240
Abstract The Asiatic wild ass Equus hemionus, or khulan, once ranged across much of Central Asia, but is now globally threatened. The largest free-ranging populations are now restricted to a 250-km wide area (range 100ñ400 km) across the Gobi Desert region of southern Mongolia. Over the last 23 years the population has moved further north and east into its former range. Surveys conducted in the 1970s and 1980s estimated that the Mongolian population contained fewer than 15 000 animals and was declining as a result of human exploitation and livestock competition. Aerial surveys (one in autumn 1994, two in spring 1997) were flown as line transects over portions of the khulan's range in Mongolia and ground surveys (’ve in spring, summer, and autumn 1994ñ97) were conducted by vehicle and foot. Sample sizes and areas surveyed were larger than previous surveys, and our methods were often more systematic. Population size was estimated at 33 000ñ63 000 wild asses in Mongolia. Animal density ranged from 4.2 a 1.3 to 19.1a 3.2 per 100 km2. Mean group size ranged from four to 35 animals in the south-western Gobi, four to seven animals in the southern Gobi, and three to 18 in the south-eastern Gobi. Our data suggest that Mongolia is the most important stronghold for the conservation of E. hemionus. Conservation management continues to be challenging because intensive studies on khulan biology and ecology are just beginning. As a freemarket economy continues to emerge in Mongolia, pressure from resource extraction interests and nomadic livestock herders to remove the khulan's protected status, permit harvesting and halt population growth and expansion, also makes implementation of research and conservation management programs more imperative.
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Notes Full text available at URL Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 509 Serial 813
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