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Author Ahmad, A.
Title (up) Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Northern Pakistan Type Conference Article
Year 1997 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 148-154
Keywords conservation; livestock; Wwf; Pakistan; herders; herder; snow-leopard; management; Marco-Polo-sheep; grazing; ibex; park; parks; reserve; reserves; refuge; Khunjerab; hunting; hunter; skin; pelt; fur; coat; protected-area; snow leopard; browse; 2950
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Islt Place of Publication Lahore, Pakistan Editor R.Jackson and A.Ahmad
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Full text at URLTitle, Monographic: Eighth International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: Islamabad, IndiaDate of Copyright: 1997 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 299 Serial 41
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Author Brown, M.
Title (up) Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Snow Leopard Habitat Type Conference Article
Year 1997 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 146-147
Keywords conservation; habitat; tourism; livestock; herders; herder; predator; prey; management; browse; 2940
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Islt Place of Publication Lahore, Pakistan Editor R.Jackson; A.Ahmad
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Full Text at URLTitle, Monographic: Eighth International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: Islamabad, PakistanDate of Copyright: 1997 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 303 Serial 199
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Author Macdonald, A.A.; Johnstone, M.
Title (up) Comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (Felidae), dogs (Canidae), bears (Ursidae) and hyaenas (Hyaenidae) Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication J Anat Abbreviated Journal
Volume 186 ( Pt 2) Issue Pages 235-243
Keywords Animal; Newborn; Bears: anatomy & histology; Carnivora: anatomy & histology: embryology; Cats: anatomy & histology; Dogs: anatomy & histology; Heart Septum: anatomy & histology: embryology; Support,Non-U.S.Gov't; bear; anatomy; histology; Carnivora; embryology; Cats; cat; bears; Dog; Dogs; heart; septum; browse; non; gov't; us; government; 160
Abstract The structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the Felidae, Canidae, Ursidae and Hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. The Felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (Felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (Uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (Leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (Panthera leo), a panther neonate (Panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (Neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. The Canidae were represented by a golden jackal neonate (Canis aureus), a newborn wolf (Canis lupus), 8 domestic dog fetuses (Canis familiaris), 3 red fox neonates (Vulpes vulpes) and a dhole neonate (Cuon alpinus). The Ursidae were represented by a brown bear neonate (Ursus arctos), a day-old grizzly bear cub (Ursus arctos horribilis), a polar bear neonate (Ursus maritimus), and 2 additional bear fetuses (species unknown). The Hyaenidae were represented by a striped hyaena neonate (Hyaena hyaena). In each species, the foramen ovale, when viewed from the terminal part of the caudal vena cava, had the appearance of a short tunnel. A thin fold of tissue, the developed remains of the embryonic septum primum, extended from the distal end of the caudal vena cava for a variable distance into the lumen of the left atrium and contributed towards the 'tunnel' appearance in all specimens. It constituted a large proportion of the tube, and its distal end was straight-edged. There was fibrous material underlying the endothelium of the flap, the apparent morphology of which suggested that it comprised cardiac muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8782 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Document Type: eng Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 269 Serial 632
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Author Brown, J.L.; Wasser, S.K.; Wildt, D.E.; Graham, L.H.
Title (up) Comparative Aspects of Steroid Hormone Metabolism and Ovarian Activity in Felids, Measured Noninvasively in Feces Type Journal Article
Year 1994 Publication Biol Reprod Abbreviated Journal
Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 776-786
Keywords Animal; Carbon; Radioisotopes; Carnivora; Cats; Chromatography; High; Pressure; Liquid; Comparative Study; Estradiol; metabolism; Estrone; feces; chemistry; Female; Ovary; physiology; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Pseudopregnancy; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; browse; non; government; gov't; us; 170
Abstract Noninvasive fecal assays were used to study steroid metabolism and ovarian activity in several felid species. Using the domestic cat (Felis catus) as model, the excretory products of injected [14C]estradiol (E2) and [14C]progesterone (P4) were determined. Within 2 days, 97.0 +/- 0.6% and 96.7 +/- 0.5% of recovered E2 and P4 radioactivity, respectively, was found in feces. E2 was excreted as unconjugated estradiol and estrone (40%) and as a non-enzyme- hydrolyzable conjugate (60%). P4 was excreted primarily as non-enzyme- hydrolyzable, conjugated metabolites (78%) and as unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. A simple method for extracting fecal steroid metabolites optimized extraction efficiencies of the E2 and P4 excretion products (90.1 +/- 0.8% and 87.2 +/- 1.4%, respectively). Analysis of HPLC fractions of extracted fecal samples from the radiolabel-injected domestic cats revealed that E2 immunoreactivity coincided primarily with the unconjugated metabolized [14C]E2 peak, whereas progestogen immunoreactivity coincided with a single conjugated epimer and multiple unconjugated pregnenolone epimers. After HPLC separation, similar immunoreactive E2 and P4 metabolite profiles were observed in the leopard cat (F. bengalensis), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), and snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that changes in fecal E2 and P4 metabolite concentrations reflected natural or artificially induced ovarian activity. For example, severalfold increases in E2 excretion were associated with overt estrus or exogenous gonadotropin treatment, and elevated fecal P4 metabolite concentrations occurred during pregnant and nonpregnant (pseudopregnant) luteal phases. Although overall concentrations were similar, the duration of elevated fecal P4 metabolites during pseudopregnancy was approximately half that observed during pregnancy. In summary, steroid metabolism mechanisms appear to be conserved among these physically diverse, taxonomically related species. Results indicate that this hormone-monitoring approach will be extremely useful for elucidating the hormonal regulatory mechanism associated with the reproductive cycle, pregnancy, and parturition of intractable and endangered felid species.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3363 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Document Type: eng Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 251 Serial 198
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Author Gripenberg, U.
Title (up) Comparison of chromosome banding patterns in the snow leopard (Panthera uncial) and in other felids Type Unsupported: Serial (Book, Monograph)
Year 1982 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 135-138
Keywords Banding; Chromosome; felids; International; patterns; pedigree; snow leopard
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue 3 Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 966 Serial 353
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Author Janeč ka, J.E., Munkhtsog, B., Jackson, R.M., Naranbaatar, G., Mallon, D.P. & Murphy, W.J.
Title (up) Comparison of noninvasive genetic and camera-trapping techniques for surveying snow leopards Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal
Volume 92 Issue 4 Pages 771-783
Keywords
Abstract The endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is widely but sparsely distributed throughout the mountainous regions of central Asia. Detailed information on the status and abundance of the snow leopard is limited because of the logistical challenges faced when working in the rugged terrain it occupies, along with its secretive nature. Camera-trapping and noninvasive genetic techniques have been used successfully to survey this felid. We compared noninvasive genetic and camera-trapping snow leopard surveys in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. We collected 180 putative snow leopard scats from 3 sites during an 8-day period along 37.74 km of transects. We then conducted a 65-day photographic survey at 1 of these sites, approximately 2 months after scat collection. In the site where both techniques were used noninvasive genetics detected 5 individuals in only 2 days of fieldwork compared to 7 individuals observed in the 65-day camera-trapping session. Estimates of population size from noninvasive genetics ranged between 16 and 19 snow leopards in the 314.3-km2 area surveyed, yielding densities of 4.9–5.9 individuals/100 km2. In comparison, the population estimate from the 65-day photographic survey was 4 individuals (adults only) within the 264-km2 area, for a density estimate of 1.5 snow leopards/100 km2. Higher density estimates from the noninvasive genetic survey were due partly to an inability to determine age and exclude subadults, reduced spatial distribution of sampling points as a consequence of collecting scats along linear transects, and deposition of scats by multiple snow leopards on common sites. Resulting differences could inflate abundance estimated from noninvasive genetic surveys and prevent direct comparison of densities derived from the 2 approaches unless appropriate adjustments are made to the study design.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher American Society of Mammalogists Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes DOI: 10.1644/10-MAMM-A-036.1; URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1644/10-MAMM-A-036.1 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1351
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Author Dawa, T., Farrington, J., Norbu, K.
Title (up) Competition and Coexistence: Human-Wildlife Conflict in the Chang Tang Region of Tibet Type Book Whole
Year 2007 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract In Chinese and English.

Note: this is a slightly expanded book version of the following report with a full Chinese translation: Tsering Dawa, John D. Farrington, and Kelsang Norbu. Human-wildlife Conflict in the Chang Tang Region of Tibet: The Impact of Tibetan Brown Bears and other Wildlife on Nomadic Herders with Recommendations for Conflict Mitigation. Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China: WWF China-Lhasa Field Office, 2006.

The multiple-use Chang Tang and Seling Lake Nature Reserves were created in 1993 to protect the unique assemblage of large fauna inhabiting the high-altitude steppe grasslands of northern Tibet, including the Tibetan antelope, Tibetan wild ass, Tibetan brown bear, Tibetan Gazelle, wild yak, and snow leopard. Prior to creation of the reserve, many of these species were heavily hunted for meat and sale of parts. Since creation of the reserve, however, killing of wildlife by subsistence hunters and commercial poachers has declined while in the past five years a new problem has emerged, that of human-wildlife conflict. With human, livestock, and wildlife populations in the reserves all increasing, and animals apparently emboldened by reserve-wide hunting bans, all forms of human-wildlife conflict have surged rapidly since 2001. This conflict takes on four primary forms in the Chang Tang region: 1)killing of domestic livestock in corrals and on open pastures by Tibetan brown bears, snow leopards, and other predators, 2) Tibetan brown bears badly damaging herders’ cabins and tents in search of food, 3) loss of important grass resources to large herds of widely migrating wild ungulates, particularly the Tibetan wild ass, possibly leading to winter starvation of livestock, 4) driving off of domestic female yaks by wild yak bulls in search of harems.

In April of 2006, the authors conducted a wildlife conflict survey of 300 herding households in Nagchu Prefecture’s Shenzha, Tsonyi, and Nyima Counties. Results showed that the 87 percent of households had experienced some form of wildlife conflict since 1990. The Tibetan brown bear was the largest source of wildlife conflict, affecting 49 percent of surveyed households, followed by grazing competition conflict which affected 36 percent of surveyed households, and snow leopard conflict which affected 24 percent of surveyed households. Type and frequency of wildlife conflict problems cut across all three surveyed socio-economic factors, residence type, size of living group, and economic status/herd size, and was primarily a function of location. A break down of incidences of human-wildlife conflict into three 5 to 6-year time periods between January 1990 and April 2006 revealed dramatic increases in conflict occurring since 2001. When compared to the 1990-1995 period, the incidence of conflict today ranged from 2.6 times higher for fox conflict to 5.5 times higher for conflict with snow leopards, while there was a 4.6 fold increase in the occurrence of bear conflict. From second-hand accounts and wildlife remains confiscated from herders, it is now believed that retaliatory killing of wildlife rivals commercial poaching as the greatest threat to the continued existence of the Chang Tang region's large fauna. Human-wildlife conflict reduction strategies and wildlife conservation education programs must be devised and implemented in order to halt the retaliatory killing of wildlife by nomadic herders in the Chang Tang.
Address
Corporate Author WWF Thesis
Publisher Tibet People’s Publishing House Place of Publication Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China Editor
Language English Summary Language Chinese Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1149
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Author Mishra, C.; Van Wieren S.; Ketner, P.; Heitkonig, I.; Prins H.
Title (up) Competition between domestic livestock and wild bharal Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 73 Issue Pages 344-354
Keywords blue sheep,diet,grazing,rangeland,resource,ungulate,wildlife; 5320
Abstract 1. The issue of competition between livestock and wild herbivores has remained contentious. We studied the diets and population structures of the mountain ungulate bharal Pseudois nayaur and seven species of livestock to evaluate whether or not they compete for forage. The study was conducted in the high altitude Spiti Valley, Indian Trans-Himalaya.

2. We compared resource (forage) availability and bharal population structures between rangelands differing in livestock density. Forage availability was estimated by clipping the standing graminoid biomass in sample plots. Livestock and bharal population structures were quantified through annual censuses. Seasonal diets of livestock were studied by direct observations, while those of bharal were quantified through feeding

signs on vegetation.

3. We found that livestock grazing causes a significant reduction in the standing crop of forage. Graminoid availability per unit livestock biomass was three times greater in a moderately grazed rangeland compared with an intensively grazed one.

4. There was considerable diet overlap among the herbivore species. In summer, bharal, yak Bos grunniens, horse Equus caballus, cow Bos indicus, and dzomo (yak-cow hybrids) fed predominantly on graminoids, while donkey E. asinus, sheep Ovis aries, and goat Capra hircus, consumed both graminoids and herbs. The summer diet of bharal was a subset of the diets of three livestock species. In winter, depleted graminoid availability caused bharal, yak and horse to consume relatively more herbs, while the remaining livestock species fed predominantly on graminoids. Diet overlap was less in winter but, in both seasons, all important forage species in the bharal diet were consumed

in substantial amounts by one or more species of livestock.

5. Comparison of the population structures of bharal between two rangelands differing in livestock density by

c. 30% yielded evidence of resource competition. In the intensively grazed rangeland, bharal density was 63% lower, and bharal population showed poorer performance (lower young : adult female ratios).

6.Synthesis and applications High diet overlap between livestock and bharal, together with density-dependent forage limitation, results in resource competition and a decline in bharal density. Under the present conditions of high livestock density and supplemental feeding, restricting livestock numbers and creating livestockfree areas are necessary measures for conserving Trans-Himalayan wild herbivores. Mediating competitive effects on bharal through supplemental feeding is not a feasible option.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 517 Serial 695
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Author Ashraf, N.
Title (up) Competition For Food Between Markhor And Domestic Goat In Chitral, Pakistan Type Manuscript
Year 2010 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-76
Keywords
Abstract The present study was, therefore, designed to collect data on feeding aspects of Markhor and domestic goat in Chitral area, in order to examine the extent of resource competition between two species. The objectives of study were;

To analyze the food composition of Markhor and domestic goat.

To determine the degree of competition between Markhor and domestic goat in terms of forage consumption.

To provide recommendation for managing Markhor habitat and reducing competition with domestic livestock.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Pakistan Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes M.Phil Thesis, Pir Mehr Ali Shah (PMAS) – Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1328
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Author Abdunazarov, B.B.
Title (up) Composition and numbers of the rare terrestrial vertebrates and prospects of their preservation in Uzbekistan. Nature reserves in the USSR: Their present and future Type Conference Article
Year 1990 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Uzbekistan; Russia; Soviet-Union; Ussr; parks; park; reserves; reserve; refuge; conservation; protected-area; browse; soviet union; soviet; union; protected; area; areas; 2530; Russian
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Abstracts of the All-Union Conference, Novgorod. In Russian. Place of Meeting: 1990 Date of Copyright: 1990 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 150 Serial 28
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