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Author Tiwari, M. P., Devkota, B. P., Jackson, R. M., Chhetri, B. B. K., Bagale, S.
Title (down) What Factors Predispose Households in Trans-Himalaya (Central Nepal) to Livestock Predation by Snow Leopards? Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal
Volume 10 Issue 2187 Pages 1-14
Keywords human-snow leopard conflict; livestock predation; Narphu valley; trans-Himalaya
Abstract Livestock depredation across the trans-Himalaya causes

significant economic losses to pastoralist communities. Quantification

of livestock predation and the assessment of variables associated with

depredation are crucial for designing effective long-term mitigation

measures. We investigated the patterns and factors of livestock

depredation by snow leopards (Panthera uncia) using semi-structured

questionnaires targeting herders in the Narphu valley of the Annapurna

Conservation Area, Nepal. During the two years (2017/18 and 2018/19),

73.9% of the households interviewed (n = 65) lost livestock to snow

leopards, with an annual average loss of two livestock per household. Of

the total depredation attributed to snow leopards, 55.4% were yak

(mainly female: 79%), 31.7% goat, 6.8% sheep, 3.2% horse and 2.8%

cattle. Results from applying Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs)

revealed the total number of livestock owned and the number of larger

bodied livestock species as the main explanatory covariates explaining

livestock depredation. Forty-one (41%) of all herders considered snow

leopard’s preference for domestic livestock as the main factor in

livestock predation, whereas only 5% perceived poor herding practice as

the main reason for the loss. Our study found poor and changing herding

practices in the valley, whereby 71% herders reported careful herding as

a solution to snow leopard depredation, and 15% of herders considered

the complete extermination of snow leopards as the best solution to the

problem. Tolerance levels and awareness among herders towards snow

leopard conservation is increasing, mainly due to the Buddhist religion

and strict law enforcement within this protected area. We recommend the

effective implementation of a community-based livestock insurance scheme

to compensate the economic loss of herders due to predation and improved

herding practices as the recommended mitigation measures for ensuring

livestock security and snow leopards’ conservation in the valley.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1624
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Author Hanson, J. H., Schutgens, M., Leader-Williams, N.
Title (down) What factors best explain attitudes to snow leopards in the Nepal Himalayas? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-19
Keywords
Abstract The snow leopard Panthera uncia is a vulnerable wild felid native to mountainous regions of 12 Asian countries. It faces numerous overlapping threats, including killings by herders retaliating against livestock losses, the illegal wildlife trade, loss of prey and habitat, infra- structure, energy and mining developments, and climate change. The species ranges over large territories that often lie outside of protected areas (PA), so coexistence with human populations across its range is key to its persistence. Human attitudes to snow leopards may be an important factor to consider in reducing overlapping threats to this species. How- ever, this nexus has not been widely studied to date. Attitudes to snow leopard conserva- tion, including actors and interventions, may also be a significant aspect of coexistence. These have also received limited empirical attention. This study therefore explored human attitudes to snow leopards and to snow leopard conservation, the motivations for these atti- tudes and the individual factors that best explained them. Using systematic sampling, a quantitative questionnaire was administered to 705 households at two sites in the Nepal Himalayas: Sagarmatha National Park, with a less decentralised governance model, and Annapurna Conservation Area, with a more decentralised model. Linear regression models were the main form of analysis. Based on these, attitudes to snow leopard conservation emerged as the strongest influence on local attitudes to snow leopards, and vice versa. This was true in both PAs, despite their differing management regimes. Other important explana- tory factors included numbers of livestock owned, years of education, household livelihoods and age. Furthermore, a positive intrinsic motivation was the most common reason given by respondents to explain their attitudes to both snow leopards and snow leopard conservation. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to the usual suite of factors that influence atti- tudes to a species, the way in which its conservation is pursued and perceived also needs consideration. How the snow leopard is conserved may strongly influence its coexistence with local communities.
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Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1489
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Author Hanson, J. H., Schutgens, M., Baral, N.
Title (down) What explains tourists support for snow leopard conservation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal? Type Journal Article
Year Publication Human Dimensions of Wildlife Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-15
Keywords Flagship species; Himalayas; knowledge-attitude-practice model; Panthera uncia; protected area management; tourism
Abstract Wildlife tourism is increasingly important for the conservation of

threatened species such as snow leopards. However, what tourists

know or value about snow leopards, and to what extent they support

the conservation of this species, has received limited empirical attention.

This paper investigates tourist knowledge about snow leopards,

beliefs and values toward the species, and support for its conservation

in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. Survey data were

collected from 406 foreign tourists between March and May 2014.

Although knowledge about snow leopards varied among respondents,

there was widespread support for their conservation.

Knowledge about snow leopards was best explained by education

level and environmental organization membership. Improved knowledge

about the species, and a variety of intrinsic conservation values,

were found to increase tourist support for snow leopard conservation.

These results provide important insights to help tailor tourism

initiatives to support the conservation of snow leopards.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1474
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Author Weiskopf, S. R., Kachel, S. M., McCarthy, K. P.
Title (down) What Are Snow Leopards Really Eating? Identifying Bias in Food-Habit Studies Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Wildlife Society Bulletin Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-8
Keywords diet, DNA genotyping, feces, Panthera uncia, scat, snow leopard. Lack of
Abstract Declining prey populations are widely recognized as a primary threat to snow leopard (Panthera

uncia) populations throughout their range. Effective snow leopard conservation will depend upon reliable

knowledge of food habits. Unfortunately, past food-habit studies may be biased by inclusion of nontarget

species in fecal analysis, potentially misinforming managers about snow leopard prey requirements.

Differentiation between snow leopard and sympatric carnivore scat is now cost-effective and reliable using

genetics. We used fecal mitochondrial DNA sequencing to identify scat depositors and assessment bias in

snow leopard food-habit studies. We compared presumed, via field identification, and genetically confirmed

snow leopard scats collected during 2005 and 2012 from 4 sites in Central Asia, using standard forensic

microscopy to identify prey species. Field identification success varied across study sites, ranging from 21% to

64% genetically confirmed snow leopard scats. Our results confirm the importance of large ungulate prey for

snow leopards. Studies that fail to account for potentially commonplace misidentification of snow leopard

scat may mistakenly include a large percentage of scats originating from other carnivores and report

inaccurate dietary assessments. Relying on field identification of scats led to overestimation of percent

occurrence, biomass, and number of small mammals consumed, but underestimated values of these measures for large ungulates in snow leopard diet. This clarification suggests that the conservation value of secondary prey, such as marmots (Marmota spp.) and other small mammals, may be overstated in the literature; stable snow leopard populations are perhaps more reliant upon large ungulate prey than previously understood.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1445
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Author Joost van der Ven
Title (down) Western Tien Shan: nature as it is Type Miscellaneous
Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 51-67
Keywords Western Tien Shan; biodiversiry; sustainable use; trophy hunt; endangered species; snow leopard.; 7010; Russian
Abstract Some ideas of biodiversity conservation in the West Tien Shan (first of all large mammals such as ibex, moral, brown bear, and snow leopard) including an idea of limited trophy hunt are discussed.
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Biodiversity of the West Tien Shan. Status and perspectives. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 679 Serial 505
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Author Bannikov A.G.
Title (down) We must save them Type Miscellaneous
Year 1982 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 49-50
Keywords Ussr; endangered species; Red Data book; snow leopard; biology; distribution; number; captive breeding; conservation.; 6160; Russian
Abstract It describes the USSR's fauna species included in the Red Data Book and gives an assessment of endangered species conservation practices throughout the world. It says about ways and perspectives of conservation and rehabilitation of rare animals in the USSR. It provides brief information concerning snow leopard's biology, distribution, number, opportunities for captive breeding, and international conservation activities aimed to protect this species.
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Notes Full text available in Russian Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 594 Serial 113
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Author Chichikin Yu.N.
Title (down) Ways to enrich game fauna of Kyrgyzstan Type Miscellaneous
Year 1968 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 33-39
Keywords Kyrgyzstan; game species; birds; mammals; snow leopard.; 6450; Russian
Abstract In Kyrgyzstan, there are 106 mammal and 111 bird species. 40 mammal and 70 bird species are game ones. Resources of some of them were undermined due to over-hunting. Moral, goitered gazelle, pheasant have disappeared; argali, roe deer, and wild boar have become not numerous. In order to protect game fauna and regulate hunting of wild animals, hunting was prohibited at lake Issyk-Kul (1948); hunting for moral, goitered gazelle, swan, bar-headed goose, pheasant, snow leopard, bear, and argali was prohibited too (1952, 1956 and 1958).
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Love and protect nature of Kyrgyzstan. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 623 Serial 218
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Author Zahler, P.; Graham, P.
Title (down) War and wildlife: the Afghanistan conflict and its effects on the environment Type Report
Year 2001 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-10
Keywords war; wildlife; Afghanistan; conflict; effects; environment; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; Islt; environmental; Organization; conservation; endangered; mountain; mountain ecosystem; mountain-ecosystem; ecosystem; approach; local; local people; people; Media; government; public; Report
Abstract The International Snow Leopard Trust (ISLT) is a nonprofit environmental organization dedicated to the conservation of the endangered snow leopard and its mountain ecosystem through a balanced approach that considers the needs of the local people and the environment. As such, we wish to stress that the ISLT does not have a position regarding the present conflict in Afghanistan. However, this organization believes that there are important repercussions regarding this conflict that have yet to be addressed in the media, within government circles, or among the public. This report documents some of these repercussions so that they may be included in the present dialog.
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Publisher International Snow Leopard Trust Place of Publication Seattle Editor
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Notes ISLT special report. Peter Zahler from Wildlife Conservation Society & Peter Graham from ISLT. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 975 Serial 1067
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Author Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.
Title (down) War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume 38 Issue 1 Pages 102-105
Keywords Afghanistan; fur trade; human-wildlife conflict; hunting; Lynx; marco polo sheep; snow leopard; Wakhan; wolf; 5270
Abstract Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wildlife trade

in the markets of Kabul, Faizabad and Ishkashem. The survey confirmed the continued occurrence of at least eight species of large mammals in Wakhan, of which the snow leopard Uncia uncia and Marco Polo sheep Ovis ammon are globally threatened. We found evidence of human-wildlife conflict in Wakhan due to livestock depredation by snow leopard and wolf Canis lupus. Large mammals are hunted for meat, sport, fur, and in retaliation against livestock depredation. The fur trade in Kabul is a threat to the snow leopard, wolf, lynx Lynx lynx and common leopard Panthera pardus.
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Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 512 Serial 694
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Author Smallegange, M.M.R., Dorrestein, G.M.
Title (down) Voortplanting van de Sneeuwpanter Type Report
Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue September Pages 1-30
Keywords snow leopard
Abstract
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1248
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