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Author Schaller, G.B.
Title Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe Type Book Whole
Year 1998 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Tibet; predator; prey; steppe; ungulates; browse; 1990
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher University of Chicago Press Place of Publication Chicago Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 344 Serial 871
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Author Scheber
Title Snow Leopard in the south part of Gobi-Altai mountain range Type Miscellaneous
Year 1975 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 17
Keywords Mongolia; asia; snow-leopard; herders; livestock; predators; prey; gobi; distribution; snow leopard; browse; 960
Abstract Accorfing to the information from Gurvan its rumored that the snow leopards grow in number and many times they attacked the livestock entering into the domestic area causing damage, we investigated theGurvan Tes sumon of Umnogobi aimag and also Noyon sumon todisplay the reserve review and spreading area of snow leopard from 22 of December of 1975 to 10th of January of 1976.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes The Snow Leopard Trust has a hand copied form of this document translated from Russian, Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 28 Serial 872
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Author Shang, Y.C.
Title Behavioral Ecology Type Miscellaneous
Year 1998 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords 5580
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Bejing University Press Place of Publication Beijing Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 542 Serial 881
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Author Shrestha, B.
Title Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Report
Year 2008 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-35
Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; abundance; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; resource; predators; predator; ecological; impact; region; community; structure; number; research; population; status; density; densities; wild; prey species; prey-species; species; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; game; birds; diet; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; awareness; co-existence; ungulates; ungulate; Human; using; areas; area; monitoring; transect; Hair; identification; scat; attack; patterns; sighting; 1760; populations; birth; Male; Female; young; domestic; domestic livestock; 120; scats; yak; Dog; pika; wildlife; Seasons; winter; horse; study; cover; land; predation; Pressure; development; strategy; threatened; threatened species; threatened-species; conflicts; conflict; people; control; husbandry; compensation; reintroduction; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; free ranging
Abstract Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Forum of Natural Resource Managers, Nepal. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1076 Serial 887
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Author Stockley, G.
Title Big Game Shooting In the Indian Empire Type Book Whole
Year 1928 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords hunting; big-game; India; browse; big; game; 2000
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Constable Place of Publication London Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 12 Serial 938
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Author Stockley, G.
Title Stalking in the Himalayas and Northern India Type Book Whole
Year 1936 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Himalaya; India; hunting; big-game; browse; big game; big; game; 2010
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Herbert Jenkins Place of Publication London Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 13 Serial 939
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Author Sung, W.
Title China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Mammalia Type Book Chapter
Year 1998 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 132-135
Keywords 5600
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Science Press Place of Publication Beijing Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 544 Serial 949
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Author Suryawanshi, K.R.
Title Towards snow leopard prey recovery: understanding the resource use strategies and demographic responses of bharal Pseudois nayaur to livestock grazing and removal; Final project report Type Report
Year 2009 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-43
Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; recovery; resource; use; strategy; demographic; Response; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; livestock; grazing; Report; decline; wild; populations; population; Himalayan; region; Competition; threats; threat; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; study; diet; winter; Test; browse; nutrition; areas; area; young; Female; times; High; Adult; mortality; species; predators; predator; endangered; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya
Abstract Decline of wild prey populations in the Himalayan region, largely due to competition with livestock, has been identified as one of the main threats to the snow leopard Uncia uncia. Studies show that bharal Pseudois nayaur diet is dominated by graminoids during summer, but the proportion of graminoids declines in winter. We explore the causes for the decline of graminoids from bharal winter diet and resulting implications for bharal conservation. We test the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses, (H1) low graminoid availability caused by livestock grazing during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet, and, (H2) bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutrition, to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. Graminoid quality in winter was relatively lower than that of browse, but the difference was not statistically significant. Bharal diet was dominated by graminoids in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to bharal diet declined monotonically with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was three times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. No starvation-related adult mortalities were observed in any of the areas. Composition of bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock free areas is necessary for conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators such as the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.
Address
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program, 2008. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore. Post-graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Wildlife Conservation Society -India program, Bangalore, India. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1077 Serial 952
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Author Taryannikov, V.I.
Title Distribution, biology and current state of the number of the rare predatory mammals in W. Gissar. The Ecology, Protection, and Acclimatization of Vertebrates in Uzbekistan Type Book Whole
Year 1986 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Uzbekistan; Gissar; distribution; Russia; Soviet-Union; Ussr; browse; soviet union; soviet; union; 2600
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Tashkent Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 89 Serial 958
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Author Thapa, K.
Title Is their any correlation between abundance of blue sheep population and livestock depredation by snow leopards in the Phu Valley, Manang District, Annapurna Conservation Area? Final report Type Report
Year 2005 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-19
Keywords abundance; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; population; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; valley; Manang; annapurna; annapurna conservation area; Annapurna-Conservation-Area; conservation; area; Report; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; Nepal
Abstract This study was undertaken in the Phu valley of Manang district in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal,

Spring, 2004 and 2005. I used the Snow Leopard Management Information System (“second order” survey technique), to determine

the relative abundance of snow leopards in delineated areas in Phu valley. Transects routes were plotted by

randomly selected feasible landforms such as along ridgelines, cliff bases and river bluffs where snow

leopards sign is likely to be found. Altogether, 16 transects (total length of 7.912 km) were laid down (mean

transect length=0.495 km). They revealed, 54 sign sites (both relic and non-relic) and altogether 88 signs (72

scrapes, 11 feces, 3 scent mark, 2 pugmarks and 1 hair) were recorded (6.8 site/km and 11.1 signs/km). There

were 61.1% non-relic and 38.9% relic sites. The density of snow leopards in Phu Valley may be 4-5 snow

leopards/100 kmý.It was found that the Ghyo block had the highest sign density (13.6 mean sign item/km)

and Phu block (9.8 mean sign item/km) and the lowest in Ngoru block (3.9 mean sign item/km.). For blue sheep, direct count method was applied from different appropriate vantage points (fixed-point

count). I counted total individuals in each herd and classified all individuals whenever possible, using 8 X24

binocular and 15-60x spotting scope. A total 37 blue sheep herds and 1209 individuals were observed in

192.25 kmý of the study area (blue sheep density, 6.3 kmý). Average herd size was 32.68. Herd size varied

from 1 to 103 animals (the largest so far recorded). The average sex ratio male to female for the entire survey

area was 0.67. Recruitment rate was 47.13. The ratio of yearlings to adult female was 0.45. In Ghyo block

had total 168 blue sheep (area, 44.08 km2 or 3.8/ km2 i.e. 137.2 kg/ kmý). Blue sheep density in Ngoru block

showed 4.7/km2 (area, 65.47 km2). Highest density of blue sheep among three blocks was recorded in Phu

block, 8.9/km2 (or 320 kg/km2) in its 82.70 km2 area. A standard questionnaire was designed, and interviews conducted for relevant information was collected on

livestock depredation patterns (total household survey). Out of 33 households surveyed, 30 reported that they

had livestock depredation by the snow leopard in 2004. Altogether 58 animals were reportedly lost to snow

leopards (3.1% of the total mortality). Out of the estimated standing available biomass (1, 83,483kg) in the

Phu valley at least 2220 kg or 1.3% of the total livestock biomass was consumed by snow leopards in the

year of our study (2004). It was estimated that in the Phu valley annually 1.8 animals were lost per household

to snow leopards. This means approx. Rs.413560 (US$ 5,908) is lost annually in the valley (US$

179/household/annum). Ghyo block, had the highest animals loss (53.4%), followed by Phu block (36.2%)

and Ngoru block (10.3%) to snow leopards. There is positive correlation among the densities of blue sheep, relative abundance of the snow leopard and

livestock depredation. Blue sheep is the main prey species of the snow leopard in Phu valley and its

conservation therefore matters to reduce livestock depredation. A general patterns appears here that shows

that blue sheep (prey) abundance determine snow leopard (predator) abundance and that livestock

depredation by snow leopards may be minimal where there is good population of blue sheep, and vice versa.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program, 2005. Annapurna Conservation Area Project, Pokhara, Nepal. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1078 Serial 959
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