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Author Farrington, J., Tsering, D. url  openurl
  Title Human-snow leopard conflict in the Chang Tang region of Tibet, China Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 237 Issue Pages 504-513  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract In April 2006, the authors conducted a preliminary human-wildlife conflict survey of 300 livestock herders in Shainza, Nyima, and Tsonyi Counties in northern Tibet's sparsely-populated Chang Tang region. This survey revealed a widespread but previously undocumented problem of snow leopard predation on livestock. In June and July 2007, an exploratory human-snow leopard conflict survey of 234 herders in the above counties found that 65.8% of respondents had experienced conflict with snow leopards in the form of livestock kills, with 77.3% of the most recent incidents occurring in the previous five years. These incidents were concentrated in winter and spring and a surprising 39.6% of incidents occurred during the day, often with herders present. Fifteen exploratory snow leopard sign transects totaling 14.85 km were conducted. Abundant snow leopard scrapes as well as pug marks were found, confirming the presence of these secretive cats. A total of 521 blue sheep were counted on and off sign transects indicating widespread availability of wild snow leopard prey. The recent surge in reported snow leopard conflict is likely due to increasing human and livestock populations, establishment of two multiple-use nature reserves accompanied by improved enforcement of wildlife protection laws, and a regional gun and trap ban launched in 2001. However, retaliatory killing of snow leopards in the survey area continues to be a potential threat. Therefore, measures are needed to reduce livestock kills by snow leopards, including corral improvements, improved guarding, establishment of livestock compensation schemes, and educating herders about snow leopard behavior.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1600  
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Author Farrington, J., Tsering, D. url  openurl
  Title Snow leopard distribution in the Chang Tang region of Tibet, China Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 23 Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract In 2006 and 2007, the authors conducted human-wildlife conflict surveys in the Tibet Autonomous Region’s (TAR) Shainza, Nyima, and Tsonyi Counties, located in the TAR’s remote Chang Tang region. At this time, prior knowledge of the snow leopard in this vast 700,000 km2 region was limited to just eight firsthand snow leopard sign and conflict location records and 15 secondhand records. These surveys revealed a previously undocumented and growing problem of human-snow leopard conflict. The 2007 survey also yielded 39 new snow leopard conflict incident locations and 24 new snow leopard sign locations. Next, snow leopard telephone interviews and mapping exercises were conducted with Tibet Forestry Bureau staff that yielded an additional 63 and 144 new snow leopard conflict and sighting location records, respectively. These 270 new snow leopard location records, together with 39 records collected by other observers from 1988 to 2009, were compiled into a snow leopard distribution map for the Chang Tang. This effort greatly expanded knowledge of the snow leopard’s distribution in this region which remains one of the least understood of the snow leopard’s key range areas. New knowledge gained on snow leopard distribution in the Chang Tang through this exercise will help identify human-snow leopard conflict hot spots and inform design of human-snow leopard conflict mitigation and conservation strategies for northwest Tibet. Nevertheless, extensive additional field verification work will be required to definitively delineate snow leopard distribution in the Chang Tang. Importantly, since 2006, a number of major transportation infrastructure projects have made the Chang Tang more accessible, including paving of highways, new railroads, and new airports. This has led to a greatly increased number of tourists visiting western Tibet, particularly Mt. Kailash and Lake Manasarovar. At the same time, large areas of the Chang Tang have been fenced for livestock pastures as part of government initiatives to allocate pasturelands to individual families. All three of these developments have a large potential to cause disturbance to snow leopards and their prey species, including by hindering their movements and degrading their habitat. Therefore, future conservation measures in the Chang Tang will need to insure that development activities and the growing number of visitors to the Chang Tang do not adversely affect the distribution of snow leopards and their prey species or directly degrade their habitat.  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1601  
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Author WWF Mongolia Programme Office url  openurl
  Title Communication and public awareness programme Type Manual
  Year 2010 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 54  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract The overall goal and vision of the project is to ensure survival of Argali and Snow Leopard in Mongolian-Russian trans-border areas of Altai-Sayan Ecoregion and replicate best practices to other parts of species ranges. The project has two modules:

•Conservation of Argali and Snow Leopard using Community based approaches and

•Establishing new PA, covering their critical habitats and improving management of the local PA “Gulzat”
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author WWF Mongolia Thesis  
  Publisher WWF Mongolia Place of Publication Mongolia Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Communications plan for the project, entitled “Long-term conservation of argali and snow leopard in trans-boundary areas of the Altai Sayan Ecoregion between Mongolia and Russia” Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1098  
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Author Namgail, T. url  openurl
  Title Geography of mammalian herbivores in the Indian Trans-Himalaya: Patterns and Processes Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract The loss of mammalian herbivores from grazing ecosystems has become a major concern,and efforts to stem such losses are stymied by lack of information on the proximate and ultimate factors influencing their distributions and diversity patterns. This research investigated the distribution, species-richness patterns and underlying mechanisms in mammalian herbivores of the Trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh, India. It adopted a multi-spatial approach to understand these issues in the little-known herbivore assemblage of the region. Since vegetation is the most important factor that determines the distribution of herbivores, first I researched the distribution and abundance patterns of vascular plants along an altitudinal gradient at different spatial scales. Both plant species-richness and aboveground biomass showed a hump-shaped relationship with altitude. Such a relationship in case of species-richness is expected, but it is contrary to my expectation of a negative linear relationship, in case of abundance. I relate this unexpected pattern to the limited precipitation and pervasive livestock grazing at lower altitudes in this dry alpine environment. I then investigated the biogeography of mammalian herbivores, and found that they form geographical groups on the basis of their evolutionary histories. Subsequently, I assessed the niche relationship between Asiatic ibex Capra ibex siberica and blue sheep Pseudois nayaur, the most common large herbivores in Ladakh, to see whether local level processes like competition generate spatial pattern of herbivore species-richness. The results showed that blue sheep constrains the distribution of ibex, which implies that competition amongst native species does play a role in structuring large herbivore assemblages in the region. Recognising the lack of information on large herbivores’ niche variation across assemblages, I also studied blue sheep’s niche width in relation to herbivore speciesrichness. It became apparent that the species’ niche varies across assemblages with different number of sympatric species, which could negatively influence the animal’s reproductive performance and population. Finally, I asked if the distributional range of the endangered Ladakh urial Ovis vignei vignei is constrained by the abundant blue sheep, and found that these two species associate randomly at large geographical scales, but cooccur at the landscape level as a result of local habitat-level resource partitioning. These results contribute towards understanding the mechanisms responsible for the formation and maintenance of large herbivore assemblages in the Trans-Himalaya and other mountainous regions of the world.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication India Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1099  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Anonymous url  openurl
  Title The Project Snow Leopard Type Report
  Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-68  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract GOAL: To safeguard and conserve India’s unique natural heritage of high altitude wildlife populations and their habitats by promoting conservation through participatory policies and actions.

DRAFTED BY: Project Snow Leopard Committee instituted by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, (vide Notification No. F.No., 15 5/2006 WL I, Dated 31 July 2006) (Annexure 1).

LOCATION: All biologically important landscapes in the Himalayan high altitudes in the states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, New Delhi Thesis  
  Publisher Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India Place of Publication Dehradun, India Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Published by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, 2008 by the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1095  
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Author Dawa, T., Farrington, J., Norbu, K. url  openurl
  Title Competition and Coexistence: Human-Wildlife Conflict in the Chang Tang Region of Tibet Type Book Whole
  Year 2007 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract In Chinese and English.

Note: this is a slightly expanded book version of the following report with a full Chinese translation: Tsering Dawa, John D. Farrington, and Kelsang Norbu. Human-wildlife Conflict in the Chang Tang Region of Tibet: The Impact of Tibetan Brown Bears and other Wildlife on Nomadic Herders with Recommendations for Conflict Mitigation. Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China: WWF China-Lhasa Field Office, 2006.

The multiple-use Chang Tang and Seling Lake Nature Reserves were created in 1993 to protect the unique assemblage of large fauna inhabiting the high-altitude steppe grasslands of northern Tibet, including the Tibetan antelope, Tibetan wild ass, Tibetan brown bear, Tibetan Gazelle, wild yak, and snow leopard. Prior to creation of the reserve, many of these species were heavily hunted for meat and sale of parts. Since creation of the reserve, however, killing of wildlife by subsistence hunters and commercial poachers has declined while in the past five years a new problem has emerged, that of human-wildlife conflict. With human, livestock, and wildlife populations in the reserves all increasing, and animals apparently emboldened by reserve-wide hunting bans, all forms of human-wildlife conflict have surged rapidly since 2001. This conflict takes on four primary forms in the Chang Tang region: 1)killing of domestic livestock in corrals and on open pastures by Tibetan brown bears, snow leopards, and other predators, 2) Tibetan brown bears badly damaging herders’ cabins and tents in search of food, 3) loss of important grass resources to large herds of widely migrating wild ungulates, particularly the Tibetan wild ass, possibly leading to winter starvation of livestock, 4) driving off of domestic female yaks by wild yak bulls in search of harems.

In April of 2006, the authors conducted a wildlife conflict survey of 300 herding households in Nagchu Prefecture’s Shenzha, Tsonyi, and Nyima Counties. Results showed that the 87 percent of households had experienced some form of wildlife conflict since 1990. The Tibetan brown bear was the largest source of wildlife conflict, affecting 49 percent of surveyed households, followed by grazing competition conflict which affected 36 percent of surveyed households, and snow leopard conflict which affected 24 percent of surveyed households. Type and frequency of wildlife conflict problems cut across all three surveyed socio-economic factors, residence type, size of living group, and economic status/herd size, and was primarily a function of location. A break down of incidences of human-wildlife conflict into three 5 to 6-year time periods between January 1990 and April 2006 revealed dramatic increases in conflict occurring since 2001. When compared to the 1990-1995 period, the incidence of conflict today ranged from 2.6 times higher for fox conflict to 5.5 times higher for conflict with snow leopards, while there was a 4.6 fold increase in the occurrence of bear conflict. From second-hand accounts and wildlife remains confiscated from herders, it is now believed that retaliatory killing of wildlife rivals commercial poaching as the greatest threat to the continued existence of the Chang Tang region's large fauna. Human-wildlife conflict reduction strategies and wildlife conservation education programs must be devised and implemented in order to halt the retaliatory killing of wildlife by nomadic herders in the Chang Tang.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author WWF Thesis  
  Publisher Tibet People’s Publishing House Place of Publication Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Chinese Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1149  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Dawa, T., Farrington, J., Norbu, K. url  openurl
  Title Human-wildlife Conflict in the Chang Tang Region of Tibet: The Impact of Tibetan Brown Bears and other Wildlife on Nomadic Herders with Recommendations for Conflict Mitigation Type Report
  Year 2006 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 111  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract The multiple-use Chang Tang and Seling Lake Nature Reserves were created in 1993 to protect the unique assemblage of large fauna inhabiting the high-altitude steppe grasslands of northern Tibet, including the Tibetan antelope, Tibetan wild ass, Tibetan brown bear, Tibetan Gazelle, wild yak, and snow leopard. Prior to creation of the reserve, many of these species were heavily hunted for meat and sale of parts. Since creation of the reserve, however, killing of wildlife by subsistence hunters and commercial poachers has declined while in the past five years a new problem has emerged, that of human-wildlife conflict. With human, livestock, and wildlife populations in the reserves all increasing, and animals apparently emboldened by reserve-wide hunting bans, all forms of human-wildlife conflict have surged rapidly since 2001. This conflict takes on four primary forms in the Chang Tang region: 1)killing of domestic livestock in corrals and on open pastures by Tibetan brown bears, snow leopards, and other predators, 2) Tibetan brown bears badly damaging herders’ cabins and tents in search of food, 3) loss of important grass resources to large herds of widely migrating wild ungulates, particularly the Tibetan wild ass, possibly leading to winter starvation of livestock, 4) driving off of domestic female yaks by wild yak bulls in search of harems.

In April of 2006, the authors conducted a wildlife conflict survey of 300 herding households in Nagchu Prefecture’s Shenzha, Tsonyi, and Nyima Counties. Results showed that the 87 percent of households had experienced some form of wildlife conflict since 1990. The Tibetan brown bear was the largest source of wildlife conflict, affecting 49 percent of surveyed households, followed by grazing competition conflict which affected 36 percent of surveyed households, and snow leopard conflict which affected 24 percent of surveyed households. Type and frequency of wildlife conflict problems cut across all three surveyed socio-economic factors, residence type, size of living group, and economic status/herd size, and was primarily a function of location. A break down of incidences of human-wildlife conflict into three 5 to 6-year time periods between January 1990 and April 2006 revealed dramatic increases in conflict occurring since 2001. When compared to the 1990-1995 period, the incidence of conflict today ranged from 2.6 times higher for fox conflict to 5.5 times higher for conflict with snow leopards, while there was a 4.6 fold increase in the occurrence of bear conflict. From second-hand accounts and wildlife remains confiscated from herders, it is now believed that retaliatory killing of wildlife rivals commercial poaching as the greatest threat to the continued existence of the Chang Tang region's large fauna. Human-wildlife conflict reduction strategies and wildlife conservation education programs must be devised and implemented in order to halt the retaliatory killing of wildlife by nomadic herders in the Chang Tang.

Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China: WWF China-Lhasa Field Office
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author WWF China-Lhasa Field Office Thesis  
  Publisher WWF China-Lhasa Field Office Place of Publication Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1148  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Abdusaljamov I.A., Mirzobakhodurova S.R. url  openurl
  Title Conservation strategy of rare and endanger vertebrate species of Tajikistan republic Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Bulletin of Academy of Sciences of Republic Tajikistan Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2 Issue 143 Pages 40-48  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Russian Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1352  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mallon, D. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopards in Northern Hunza Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract In fall 1987 an expedition from Operation Raleigh went to Hunza in Pakistan. In promoting expeditions for young people from many countries. the London-based organization aims to carry out scientific. community. and adventure projects all over the world. One objective of the 40-strong team based at Passu in northern India was a preliminary survey of the snow leopard and large ungulates.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1354  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hillard, D. url  openurl
  Title Field report form the Himala V an Snow Leopard Project: Survey In Hongu Valley After participating in the Fifth International Snow Leopard Symposium in Srinagar Type Magazine Article
  Year 1986 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-3  
  Keywords (up)  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1353  
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