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Author Kinoshita, K., Inada, S., Seki, K., Sasaki, A., Hama, N., Kusunoki, H. url  openurl
  Title Long-Term Monitoring of Fecal Steroid Hormones in Female Snow Leopards (Panthera uncia) during Pregnancy or Pseudopregnancy Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages (down) e19314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019314  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Knowledge of the basic reproductive physiology of snow leopards is required urgently in order to develop a suitable management conditions under captivity. In this study, the long-term monitoring of concentrations of three steroid hormones in fecal matter of three female snow leopards was performed using enzyme immunoassays: (1) estradiol-17&#946;, (2) progesterone and (3) cortisol metabolite. Two of the female animals were housed with a male during the winter breeding season, and copulated around the day the estradiol-17&#946; metabolite peaked subsequently becoming pregnant. The other female was treated in two different ways: (1) first housed with a male in all year round and then (2) in the winter season only. She did not mate with him on the first occasion, but did so latter around when estradiol-17&#946; metabolite peaked, and became pseudopregnant. During pregnancy, progesterone metabolite concentrations increased for 92 or 94 days, with this period being approximately twice as long as in the pseudopregnant case (31, 42, 49 and 53 days). The levels of cortisol metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (1.35 µg/g) were significantly higher than in the pregnant females (0.33 and 0.24 µg/g) (P<0.05). Similarly, during the breeding season, the levels of estradiol-17&#946; metabolite in the pseudopregnant female (2.18 µg/g) were significantly higher than those in the pregnant females (0.81 and 0.85 µg/g) (P<0.05). Unlike cortisol the average levels of estradiol-17&#946; during the breeding season were independent of reproductive success.

The hormone levels may also be related to housing conditions and the resulting reproductive success in female leopards. The female housed with a male during the non-breeding season had high levels of cortisol metabolites and low levels of estradiol-17&#946; in the breeding season, and failed to become pregnant. This indicates that housing conditions in snow leopards may be an important factor for normal endocrine secretion and resulting breeding success.
 
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  Publisher Texas A & M University Place of Publication United States of America Editor Sharon Gursky-Doyen  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes PLoS ONE 6(5): e19314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019314 Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1317  
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Author Dickman, A., Macdonald, E., Macdonald, D. url  openurl
  Title A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human–carnivore coexistence Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication PNAS Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 108 Issue 34 Pages (down) 13937–13944  
  Keywords human-carnivore conflict, payments for ecosystem services  
  Abstract One of the greatest challenges in biodiversity conservation today is how to facilitate protection of species that are highly valued at a global scale but have little or even negative value at a local scale. Imperiled species such as large predators can impose significant economic costs at a local level, often in poverty-stricken rural areas where households are least able to tolerate such costs, and impede efforts of local people, especially traditional pastoralists, to escape from poverty. Furthermore, the costs and benefits involved in predator conservation often include diverse dimensions, which are hard to quantify and nearly impossible to reconcile with one another. The best chance of effective conservation relies upon translating the global value of carnivores into tangible local benefits large enough to drive conservation “on the ground.” Although human–carnivore coexistence involves significant noneconomic values, providing financial incentives to those affected negatively by carnivore presence is a common strategy for encouraging such coexistence, and this can also have important benefits in terms of reducing poverty. Here, we provide a critical overview of such financial instruments, which we term “payments to encourage coexistence”; assess the pitfalls and potentials of these methods, particularly compensation and insurance, revenuesharing, and conservation payments; and discuss how existing strategies of payment to encourage coexistence could be combined to facilitate carnivore conservation and alleviate local poverty.  
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  Notes http://www.pnas.org/content/108/34/13937 Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1362  
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Author Shrestha, A., Thapa, K., Subba, S. A., Dhakal, M., Devkota, B. P., Thapa, G. J., Shrestha, S., Malla, S., Thapa, K. url  openurl
  Title Cats, canines, and coexistence: dietary differentiation between the sympatric Snow Leopard and Grey Wolf in the western landscape of Nepal Himalaya Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Threatened Taxa Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue 7 Pages (down) 13815-13821  
  Keywords Canis lupus, dietary pattern, dietary overlap, livestock, Naur, negative interaction, Panthera uncia, scat analysis, sympatry  
  Abstract Understanding the dietary habits of sympatric apex carnivores advances our knowledge of ecological processes and aids their conservation. We compared the diets of the sympatric Snow Leopard Panthera uncia and Grey Wolf Canis lupus using standard micro-histological analyses of scats collected from the western complex of Nepal Himalaya. Our study revealed one of the highest recorded contributions of livestock to the diet of top predators (55% for Grey Wolf and 39% for Snow Leopard) and high dietary overlap (0.82) indicating potential exploitative or interference competition. Their diet composition, however, varied significantly based on their consumption of wild and domestic prey. Limitation in data precludes predicting direction and outcome of inter-specific interactions between these predators. Our findings suggest a high rate of negative interaction with humans in the region and plausibly retaliatory killings of these imperilled predators. To ensure the sustained survival of these two apex carnivores, conservation measures should enhance populations of their wild prey species while reducing livestock losses of the local community through preventive and mitigative interventions.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1485  
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Author Lama, R. P., Ghale, T. R., Suwal, M. K., Ranabhat, R., Regmi, G. R. url  openurl
  Title First photographic evidence of Snow Leopard Panthera uncia (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae) outside current protected areas network in Nepal Himalaya Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Threatened Taxa Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down) 12086-12090  
  Keywords Camera-trapping, conservation, Humla, livestock depredation, monasteries, non-timber forest products, retaliatory killing, Tibetan Buddhism.  
  Abstract The Snow Leopard Panthera uncia is a rare top predator of high-altitude ecosystems and insufficiently surveyed outside of protected areas in Nepal. We conducted a rapid camera-trapping survey to assess the presence of Snow Leopard in the Limi valley of Humla District. Three individuals were recorded in two camera locations offering the first photographic evidence of this elusive cat outside the protected area network of Nepal. In addition to Snow Leopard, the Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur, Beech Marten Martes foina, Pika Ochotona spp. and different species of birds were also detected by camera-traps. More extensive surveys and monitoring are needed for reliably estimating the population size of Snow Leopard in the area. The most urgent needs are community-based conservation activities aimed at mitigating immediate threats of poaching, retaliatory killing, and rapid prey depletion to ensure the survival of this top predator in the Himalaya.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1470  
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Author Ale, S., Shrestha, B., and Jackson, R. url  openurl
  Title On the status of Snow Leopard Panthera Uncia (Schreber 1775) in Annapurna, Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Threatened Taxa Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 6(3) Pages (down) 5534-5543  
  Keywords Annapurna, Blue Sheep, Buddhism, camera-trapping, Himalayas, Mustang, sign-survey, Snow Leopard.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1407  
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Author Chandra, S.; Laughlin, D.C. url  openurl
  Title Virus-like particles in cystic mammary adenoma of a snow leopard Type Journal Article
  Year 1975 Publication Cancer Res Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 35 Issue 11 Pt 1 Pages (down) 3069-3074  
  Keywords Adenoma pathology veterinary; Animal; Animals; zoo; Carnivora; Cytoplasmic Granules; Endoplasmic Reticulum: ultrastructure; Inclusion Bodies; Mammae: pathology; Neoplasms: pathology: veterinary; neoplasms; pathology; mammae; inclusion; bodies; ultrastructure; reticulum; endoplasmic; granules; cytoplasmic; adenoma; veterinary; browse; 380  
  Abstract Virus-like particles were observed in the giant cells of a mammary adenoma of a snow leopard kept in captivity. Particles that measured 115 to 125 nm in diameter budded from the lamella of endoplasmic reticulum and were studded on their inner surfaces with dense granules (approximately 12 nm) that gave them their unique ultrastructural morphology. Such particles were not observed extracellularly. Type B or type C particles were not seen in the tumor tissue.  
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  ISSN 0008-5472 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 27 Serial 212  
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Author Baral N.; Stern, M.; Heinen, J.T. url  openurl
  Title Integrated conservation and development project life cycles in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal: Is development overpowering conservation? Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Biodiversity Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 16 Issue 10 Pages (down) 2903-2917  
  Keywords annapurna; Biodiversity conservation; community-based; conservation; Gender; management; Nepal; protected area; development; project; annapurna conservation area; Annapurna-Conservation-Area; area  
  Abstract The merits of integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs), which aim to provide development incentives to citizens in return for conservation behaviors, have long been debated in the literature. Some of the most common critiques suggest that conservation activities tend to be strongly overpowered by development activities. We studied this assertion through participant observation and archival analysis of five Conservation Area Management Committees (CAMCs) in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal. Committee activities were categorized as conservation activities (policy development and conservation implementation), development activities (infrastructure, health care, education, economic development, and sanitation), or activities related to institutional strengthening (administrative development and capacity building activities). Greater longevity of each ICDP was associated with greater conservation activity in relation to development activities. Project life cycles progressed from a focus on development activities in their early stages, through a transitional period of institutional strengthening, and toward a longer-term focus that roughly balanced conservation and development activities. Results suggest that the ICDP concept, as practiced in ACA, has been successful at building capacity for and interest in conservation amongst local communities. However, success has come over a period of nearly a decade, suggesting that prior conclusions about ICDP failures may have been based on unrealistic expectations of the time needed to influence behavioral changes in target populations.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 938 Serial 117  
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Author Woodroffe, R.; Ginsberg, J.R. url  openurl
  Title Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Science Washington D.C. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 280 Issue 5372 Pages (down) 2126-2128  
  Keywords edge-effects; extinction; human-animal-conflict; mortality; population-size; protected-areas; browse; edge effects; Human; Animal; conflict; population; protected; area; 590  
  Abstract Theory predicts that small populations may be driven to extinction by random fluctuations in demography and loss of genetic diversity through drift. However, population size is a poor predictor of extinction in large carnivores inhabiting protected areas. Conflict with people on reserve borders is the major cause of mortality in such populations, so that border areas represent population sinks. The species most likely to disappear from small reserves are those that range widely-and are therefore most exposed to threats on reserve borders-irrespective of population size. Conservation efforts that combat only stochastic processes are therefore unlikely to avert extinction.  
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  Notes Document Type: English Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 351 Serial 1028  
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Author Cai, G.; Liu, Y.; O'Gara, B.W. url  openurl
  Title Observations of large mammals in the Qaidam Basin and its peripheral mountainous area in the Peoples Republic of China Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Canadadian J.Zool. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 68 Issue Pages (down) 2021-2024  
  Keywords China; Qaidam; browse; 3340  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 156 Serial 206  
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Author Saltz, D.; Rowen, M.; Rubenstein, D. url  openurl
  Title The effect of space-use patterns of reintroduced Asiatic wild ass on effective population size Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages (down) 1852-1861  
  Keywords Israel; reintroduction; ungulates; conservation; population; territorial; 5260  
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  Notes Full text available at URL Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 511 Serial 840  
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