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Author Karmacharya, Dibesh B openurl 
  Title Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Bio Med Central Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 4 Issue 516 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Background

The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal.

Results

A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP) in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA) in the east. Nineteen (27%) scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53%) of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females) and five (2 males and 3 females) in KCA.

Conclusions

We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1371  
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Author Chundawat, R.S. url  openurl
  Title Ecological Studies of Snow Leopard and its associated prey species in Hemis National Park, Ladakh Type Manuscript
  Year 1992 Publication University of Rajasthan Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 194  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Trans Himalayas experience extremes of cold and arid climatic conditions which account for their lower productivity. The wild animals occur in lower densities and need relatively large areas to maintain viable populations. Though these animals are fully adapted to these environmental conditions, increasing human pressure poses a great threat to their survival.

Trans Himalayas are intrinsically a fragile ecosystem and their overuse has pushed them close to ravage in many localities. Higher Himalayas are progressively threatened by the increasing developmental activities such as opening up by new roads and and increasing number of satellite townships.

This region has long remained unstudied by conservationists. The paucity of information on this region is very well recognised by the managers and conservationists in the country as well as the world over. For better management and conservation of wildlife in the region, it is of paramount importance to have atleast the basic information on the status, distribution of flora and fauna, and other environmental and socio-economic aspects.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1372  
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Author Wildlife Times url  openurl
  Title Wildlife Times Type Magazine Article
  Year 2011 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue November Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Snow Leopard Count – A census of Snow Leopard has started in Mustang District, Nepal  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1373  
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Author Gurung, Ghana S. url  openurl
  Title Enhancing herder's livelihoods and conserving the snow leopard in Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Cat News Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue Pages 6  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Loss of livestock to snow leopards Panthera Uncia is one of the primary concerns of subsistence herders' communities and one of the primary threats to conservation of this endsngered species throughout the alpine regions of the central Asia. Unless the relationship between snow leopards abd humans is better understood and appropriate strategies are applied, coexistence may not be sustainable. thus, to address this issue, WWF Nepal piloted a community-managed livestock insurance scheme in Ghunsa valley of Kangchenjunga Conservation Area simultaneously with various types of mitigation measures (i.e preventive and curative) We found significan advantages of the insurance scheme including that it is self-sustaining and locally managed thereby ensuring it is economically viable and effective in preventive retaliatory killing of snow leopards. The main strength of the insurance scheme is that it was designed and developed in close co-operation with the affected herders' communities. The communities start by designing a simple livestock insurance plan whereby owners contribute to a common fund that is later administered and managed at the local level, thus reducing likelihood of fraud. Benefit sharing of funds among subsistence herders' communities from income generating activities is on of the positive motivating tools for people towards snow leopards. Since initiated, snow leopard killings have gone from 1-3/year to 0/year for 3 years.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1374  
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Author Suraj Upadhaya url  openurl
  Title Junior Ranger Program: Initiatives for Biodiversity Conservation Type Magazine Article
  Year 2012 Publication Himalayas Nepal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Nov 2011 - Feb 2012 Pages  
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  Abstract The didactic Junior Ranger Program, whci was unique not onl in dolpa District, but also in the whole Nepal, was developed im such a way that each student gets an overview about the environment and its importance's on our life. The curriculum makes each and every student clear about the pollution, population, and basic needs for life, natural resources, corrective measures, and rold for environment conservation. Among all, the most improtant and interesting topic was about Snow Leopard. Being a student from the home of Snow Leopard (Panthera Uncia), I always get fascinated by this charismatic species.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1375  
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Author Suryawanshi, Kulbhushan. R url  openurl
  Title Standardizing the double-observer survey method for estimating mountain ungulate prey of the endangered snow leopard Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Oecelogia Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue December Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Mountain ungulates around the world have been threatened by illegal hunting, habitat modification, increased livestock grazing, disease and development. Mountain ungulates play an important functional role in grasslands as primary consumers and as prey for wild carnivores, and monitoring of their populations is important for conservation purposes. However, most of the several currently available methods of estimating wild ungulate abundance are either difficult to implement or too expensive for mountainous terrain. A rigorous method of sampling ungulate abundance in mountainous areas that can allow for some measure of sampling error is therefore much needed. To this end, we used a combination of field data and computer simulations to test the critical assumptions associated with double-observer technique based on capture-recapture theory. The technique was modified and adapted to estimate the populations of bharal (Pseudois nayaur) and ibex (Capra sibirica) at five different sites. Conducting the two double-observer surveys simultaneously led to underestimation of the population by 15%. We therefore recommend separating the surveys in space or time.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1376  
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Author url  openurl
  Title Type Journal Article
  Year Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Mountain ungulates around the world have been threatened by illegal hunting, habitat modification, increased livestock grazing, disease and development. Mountain ungulates play an important functional role in grasslands as primary consumers and as prey for wild carnivores, and monitoring of their populations is important for conservation purposes. However, most of the several currently available methods of estimating wild ungulate abundance are either difficult to implement or too expensive for mountainous terrain. A rigorous method of sampling ungulate abundance in mountainous areas that can allow for some measure of sampling error is therefore much needed. To this end, we used a combination of field data and computer simulations to test the critical assumptions associated with double-observer technique based on capture-recapture theory. The technique was modified and adapted to estimate the populations of bharal (Pseudois nayaur) and ibex (Capra sibirica) at five different sites. Conducting the two double-observer surveys simultaneously led to underestimation of the population by 15%. We therefore recommend separating the surveys in space or time.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1377  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Shehzad, Wasim. McCarthy, Thomas Michael. Pompanon, Francois. Purejav, Lkhagvajav. Coissac, Eric. Riaz,Tiayyba. Taberlet, Pierre url  openurl
  Title Prey Preference of Snow Leopard (Panthera Uncia) in South Gobi, Mongolia Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Feb 2012 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Accurate information about the diet of large carnivores that are elusive and inhabit inaccessible terrain, is required to properly design conservation strategies. Predation on livestock and retaliatory killing of predators have become serious issues throughout the range of the snow leopard. These techniques have inherent limitation in their ability to properly identify both snow leopard feces and prey taxa, To examine the frequency of livestock prey and and nearly-threatened argali in the diet of the snow leopard, we employed the recently developed DNA-based diet approach to study a snow leopard population located in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. After DNA was extracted from the feces, a region of ~100 bp long from mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified, making use of universal primers for vertebrates and a blocking oligonucleotide specific to snow leopard DNA. The amplicons were then sequenced using a next-generation sequencing platform. We observed a total of five different prey items from 81 fecal samples. Siberian ibex predominated the diet (in 70.4% of the feces), followed by domestic goat (17.3%) and argali sheep (8.6%). The major part of the diet was comprised of large ungulates (in 98.8% of the feces) including wild ungulates (79%) and domestic livestock (19.7%). The findings of the present study will help to understand the feeding ecology of the snow leopard, as well as to address the conservation and management issues pertaining to this wild cat.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1378  
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Author Johansson, Torbjorn, A. Johansson, Orjan. McCarthy, Tom url  openurl
  Title An Automatic VHF Transmitter Monitoring System for Wildlife Research Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Wildlife Society Bulletin Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9999 Issue Pages 1-5  
  Keywords automatic system, monitoring, pulse detection, trap-site transmitter, VHF transmitter monitoring  
  Abstract We describe an automated system for monitoring multiple very high frequency (VHF) transmitters, which are commonly employed in wildlife studies. The system consists of a microprocessor-controlled radio-frequency monitor equipped with advanced signal-processing capabilities that communicates with, and relays information to, a user interface unit at a different location. the system was designed for a capture-and-release snow leopard (Panthera uncia) study in Mongolia, where checking trap-site transmitters manually entailed climbing a hill with telemetry equipment several times each day and night. Here, it monitors the trap-site transmitters and actively produces an alarm when any of the traps have been triggered, or if the system has lost contact with any trap-transmitter. The automated system allowed us to constantly monitor transmitters from a research camp, and alerted us each time a trap was triggered. The system has been field-tested for 83 days from mid-September 2010 to mid-december 2010 in the Tost mountain range on the edge of Mongolia's Gobi desert. During this time, the system performed reliably, responding correctly to 45 manually generated alarms and 9 animal captures. The system considerably shortens the time the captured animals spend in traps, and also mitigates the need for manual trap-site transmitter monitoring, greatly reducing risk to the animal and the human effort involved.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1379  
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Author Sharma, Koustubh. McCarthy, Thomas. Johannson, Orjan. Ud Din, Jaffar. Bayarjargal, A. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopards and Telemetry: Experiences and Challenges Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Telemetry in Wildlife Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 13 Issue No. 1 Pages 1 -5  
  Keywords Snow Leopards, telemetry  
  Abstract The snow leopard Panthera uncia is one of the least studied felids in the world. Little is know about various aspects of the ecology of the snow leopard, which is cryptic in nature and found across 12 countries in Central Asia. Most research on snow leopards has been based on non-invasive methods such as sign surveys for presence (e.g. Jackson and Hunter 1996), scat analyses for diet (e.g. Chundawat and Rawat 1992; Oli et al., 2008, 2010) for population estimation, and studies based on human interviews (Mehta and Heinen 2001; Mishra and Bagchi 2006).

Despite this plethora of studies employing non-invasive techniques, several crucial questions about snow leopard ecology remain unanswered. Information about the animal’s home range, dispersal, corridors, pattern of habitat use, movement patterns, hunting frequency, behavior and intra – specific interactions is not available yet. In order to design population monitoring studies using camera traps or DNA analyses, one needs a good understanding of snow leopard ecology, including the home range and movement patterns (Williams et al., 2002). Telemetry is still the best available method and perhaps much less invasive than direct observations for studying the biology and ecology of cryptic animals.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1380  
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