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Author (up) Khan, A. url 
  Title Snow Leopard Occurrence in Mankial Valley, Swat: Final report Type Report
  Year 2004 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-17  
  Keywords snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; valley; Report; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; ecosystem; habitat; species; plants; plant; Animals; Animal; birds; research; action; study; survey; Support; Islt; community; Organization; surveys; winter; information; local; sign; pugmarks; feces; scrapes; scrape; prey; prey species; prey-species; recent; population; markhor; hunting; Culture; Pressure; areas; area; feeding; livestock; burning; decline  
  Abstract Mankial is a sub-valley of the Swat Kohistan. Temperate ecosystem of the valley is intact to a greater extent, which provides habitat to a variety of species of plants, animals and birds. Snow leopard is reported from the valley. To confirm its occurrence, the HUJRA (Holistic Understanding for Justified Research and Action), conducted the study titled “Snow Leopard Survey in Mankial Valley, district Swat, NWFP”. The author provided technical support, while ISLT (The International Snow Leopard Trust) funded the project under its small grants program. The World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan (WWF-Pakistan) and the Mankial Community Organization (MCO) facilitated surveys under the project. Surveys revealed that Snow leopard visits parts of the Mankial valley in winter months. Information from the local community shows that Snow leopard remains in the Serai (an off-shoot of the Mankial Valley) from early winter to early spring. Intensive surveys of the prime snow leopard winter habitat in the valley found several snow leopard signs including pugmarks, feces, and scrapes. The study also found occurrence of prey species through indirect evidence though. However, information from the local community confirmed that in the recent past there was a good population of markhor in the valley, which is now reduced to less than 50, mostly due to hunting and habitat disturbance. Hunting is part of the local culture and lifestyle. During winter months hunting pressure is low, as most of the local community migrates to warmer plain areas than Mankial Valley. However, those who live in the area lop oak branches for feeding their livestock and cut trees for burning, in addition to hunting prey species of snow leopard. This has resulted in stunted oak vegetation in most of the lower reaches of the valley and decline of the markhor population.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program, 2003. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1069 Serial 530  
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