||We conducted surveys focusing on the unique and vulnerable ungulate species in Yeniugou, Qinghai province, China, during September 1997 to compare population estimates with those from the early 1990s. The status of two ungulate species appeared essentially unchanged since 1990ñ1992: wild yak Bos grunniens (about 1200 to 1300 animals) and Tibetan gazelle Procapra picti- caudata. The status of one ungulate species, the white-lipped deer Cervus albirostris, appeared to improve, from a very few to close to 100. We are unsure how the status of the Tibetan wild ass Equus kiang compares with that of the early 1990s. The status of three species declined during the period: blue sheep Pseudois nayaur and argali Ovis ammon declined slightly (possibly due to a weather event), and the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni declined dramatically (probably due primarily to poaching), from over 2000 estimated in 1991 to only two seen during 1997. Poaching of antelope has become a serious problem throughout the Tibetan plateau in recent years, and this survey provides evidence that an entire subpopulation can disappear (either through mortality, movement away from human disturbance or a combination) within a relatively short time-frame. That some species (e.g. wild yak, white-lipped deer) continue to thrive in Yeniugou is heartening, but even they remain vulnerable to market-driven poaching.#1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.