||The current study in Mongolia is truly groundbreaking, in that it shows that the problem of commercial wildlife trade is also vast, unsustainable, and a major threat to wildlife populations in other areas. This paper's Executive Summary briefs the topics of wildlife trade in Mongolia, fur trade, medicinal trade, game meat trade, trophy and sport hunting, trade chains and markets, trade sustainability, impacts of wildlife trade on biodiversity conservation, impacts of trade on rural livelihoods, enabling wildlife management, and management recommendations. The main content of the paper includes: wildlife trade survey methods, a history of wildlife trade in Mongolia, wildlife take and trade today, enabling wildlife management, and recommendations and priority actions. The recommendations have been divided into six separate sections, including (1) cross-cutting recommendations, (2) international trade enforcement, (3) domestic trade enforcement, (4) hunting management, (5) trophy and sport hunting management, and (6) community-based approaches. Each section identifies short-term, long-term, and regulatory goals in order of priority within each subsection.