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Author (up) Broder, J.; MacFadden, A.; Cosens, L.; Rosenstein, D.; Harrison, T. url  openurl
  Title Use of Positive Reinforcement Conditioning to Monitor Pregnancy in an Unanesthetized Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) via Transabdominal Ultrasound Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Zoo Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue Pages 78-85  
  Keywords desensitization; fetal development; operant conditioning; pregnancy detection; primiparous; snow leopard; zoo  
  Abstract Closely monitoring snow leopard (Uncia uncia) fetal developments via transabdominal ultrasound, with minimal stress to the animal, was the goal of this project. The staff at Potter Park Zoo has used the principles of habituation, desensitization, and positive reinforcement to train a female snow leopard (U. uncia). Ultrasound examinations were preformed on an unanesthetized feline at 63 and 84 days. The animal remained calm and compliant throughout both procedures. Fetuses were observed and measured on both occasions. The absence of anesthesia eliminated components of psychologic and physiologic stress associated with sedation. This was the first recorded instance of transabdominal ultrasound being carried out on an unanesthetized snow leopard. It documents the feasibility of detecting pregnancy and monitoring fetal development via ultrasound.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 905 Serial 196  
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Author (up) Freeman, H. url  openurl
  Title Behavior in adult pairs of captive snow leopards (Panthera uncia) Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication Zoo Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 1-22  
  Keywords behavior; zoo; zoos; captive; captivity; estrus; breeding; mating; veterinary; browse; 1600  
  Abstract Eight adult pairs of snow leopards (Panthera uncia) were observed for one to three years in the months December through March to determine the species' social and reproductive characteristics in captivity. To statistically examine the occurrence of behaviors as a function of estrus, the observation weeks were divided into three time blocks: before estrus, estrus, and after estrus. Using percentage of scan samples as an estimate of time spent in various behaviors, 16 behaviors and combined behavior categories were examined for (1) behaviors that differentiated successfully from unsuccessfully breeding pairs, (2) sex differences in behavior, (3) significant correlations between pair members, and (4) behaviors that showed time block effects. The rationale for identifying a behavioral profile of successful breeders in snow leopards was to aid zoos in their captive management programs by increasing their knowledge of the social behavior of this species. By finding correlates to breeding success, informed decisions on whether to change partners after a certain period of time, how to group the cats, and the optimum strategy for a survival plan can be made. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2000 APA, all rights reserved  
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  Notes Document Type: English Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 60 Serial 319  
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Author (up) Graham, L.H.; Goodrowe, K.L.; Raeside, J.I.; Liptrap, R.M. url  openurl
  Title Non-invasive monitoring of ovarian function in several felid species by measurement of fecal estradiol-17-beta and progestins Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Zoo Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 14 Issue 3 Pages 223-237  
  Keywords Artificial-Breeding-Program; captive-management; Estradiol-17beta; Pregnancy; Progesterone; Progestin; sexual-behavior; genetics; zoo; medicine; veterinary; snow-leopard; feces; fecal-analysis; snow leopard; artificial; breeding; program; captive; management; Estradiol; 17beta; sexual; behavior; browse; snow; leopard; fecal; analysis; 1390  
  Abstract An extraction and assay procedure to measure fecal estradiol-17-beta and progestin concentrations in several cat species was developed and validated for use for noninvasive monitoring of ovarian function. Fecal samples were collected over a range of 3-20 months from female tigers (three), lions (three), snow leopards (three), cheetahs (two), caracals (two), and domestic cats (five). Samples were extracted with 90% methanol, lipids removed with petroleum ether, and the estradiol and progestins in the methanol measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractionation and subsequent RIA of the fractions indicated that the estradiol-17-beta antiserum cross-reacted primarily with estradiol-17-beta in the feces of lions and tigers and was assumed to be specific for estradiol-17-beta in the feces of other species as well. However, there were several immunoreactive compounds, presumably progesterone metabolites, excreted in the feces which varied both quantitatively and qualitatively among species. The behavior of tigers, lions, cheetahs, and caracals was visually monitored during the collection period and frequency of sexual behaviors was positively correlated with increases in fecal estradiol in all species observed. The mean fecal estradiol-17-beta peaks were as follows: tigers, 128.0 +- 13.1; lions, 186.0 +- 14.8; snow leopards, 136.7 +- 15.9; cheetahs, 140.9 +- 9.0; caracals, 24.5 +- 4.0; and domestic cats 158.9 +- 19.3 ng/gm. Fecal progestin concentrations rose significantly (P lt 0,001) only after breeding or during pregnancy and were as follows: tigers, 5.6 +- 0.6; lions, 1.9 +- 0.1; cheetahs, 8.4 +- 1.1; and caracals, 2.4 +- 0.4 mu-g/gm. Fecal progestins were elevated for one-half to two-thirds of the gestation length during presumed pseudopregnancy but remained elevated throughout successful pregnancies. These results suggest that ovarian function can be monitored noninvasively in the family Felidae by the measurement of fecal estradiol-17-beta and progestin concentrations.  
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  Notes Document Type: English Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 279 Serial 345  
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