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Author (up) Jamtsho, Y., Katel, O. url 
  Title Livestock depredation by snow leopard and Tibetan wolf: Implications for herders� livelihoods in Wangchuck Centennial National Park, Bhutan Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Springer Open Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 9:1 Pages 1-10  
  Keywords Wildlife-livestock conflicts, Endangered predators, Protected area, Income loss  
  Abstract Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a serious problem in many parts of the world, and Bhutan�s Wangchuck Centennial

National Park (WCNP) is no exception. Located in the remote alpine areas of the eastern Himalaya, wildlife species

such as snow leopard (SL) and Tibetan wolf (TW) are reported to kill livestock in many parts of the Park. Such

depredation is believed to have affected the livelihoods of high-altitude herding communities, resulting in conflicts

between them. This study provides analysis on the extent of livestock depredation by wildlife predators such as SL

and TW and examines its implications for the livelihoods of herding communities of Choekhortoe and Dhur regions

of WCNP. Using semi-structured questionnaires, all herders (n = 38) in the study area were interviewed. The questions

pertained to livestock population, frequency of depredation and income lost due to depredation in the last five years

from 2012 to 2016. This study recorded 2,815 livestock heads in the study area, with an average herd size of 74.1 stock.

The average herd size holding showed a decreasing trend over the years, and one of the reasons cited by the herders

is depredation by SL and TW and other predators. This loss equated to an average annual financial loss equivalent to

10.2% (US$837) of their total per capita cash income. Such losses have resulted in negative impacts on herders�

livelihood; e.g. six herders (2012-2016) even stopped rearing livestock and resorted to an alternate source of cash

income. The livestock intensification programmes, including pasture improvement through allowing controlled

burning, and financial compensation, may be some potential short-term solutions to reduce conflict between herders

and predators. Issuing permits for cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) collection only to the herders and instilling the

sense of stewardship to highland herders may be one of the long-term solutions.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1479  
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Author (up) Khanyari, M., Robinson, S., Milner-Gulland, E. J., Morgan, E. R., Rana, R. S., Suryawanshi, K. R. pdf 
  Title Pastoralism in the high Himalayas: Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice Open Access Understanding changing practices and their implications for parasite transmission between livestock and wildlife Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Springer Open Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 12 Issue 44 Pages 1-16  
  Keywords Migratory, Transhumance, Livestock, Asiatic ibex, Capra sibirica, Pasture, Rangelands, Gastro-intestinal nematodes  
  Abstract Rangelands are increasingly being affected by climatic variations, fragmentation and changes in livestock management practices. Along with resource competition between livestock and wildlife, disease transmission has implications for people and wildlife in these shared landscapes. We worked with two pastoral communities in the Western Indian Himalayas: the migratory Kinnauras that travel to the Trans‐Himalayan Pin valley in summer and the resident herders of Pin Valley. Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica) is the predominant wild herbivore in Pin. The pastures in Pin are grazed by both livestock (migratory and resident) and ibex, with the potential for disease transmission. We investigate the effects of herding practices on livestock health and disease transmission, while focusing on gastro‐intestinal nematodes (GINs) as they can spread by sharing pasture between wild and domestic ungulates. Surveys were carried out between June and August 2019, the period when migratory Kinnauras, local herders and Asiatic Ibex are found in Pin Valley. We found that the Kinnaura flocks share pasture with ibex during their time in Pin, exhibiting significantly higher endo‐parasite burdens than sedentary livestock, and the Kinnaura flocks are increasing in number. This suggests GIN cross‐transmission is possible, as GINs have low host specificity and a free‐living, environmental stage that is trophically acquired. As local (sedentary) sheep and goats rarely share pasture with ibex, have low endo‐parasite burdens and are few in number, they are unlikely to transmit parasites to ibex. However, increasingly large local stock numbers may be contributing to pasture degradation which could cause nutritional stress and resource competition, exacerbating GIN impacts. We also find evidence for transhumance persisting, in spite of signs of pasture degradation that are seemingly affecting livestock productivity and potentially disease transmission. It is critical that proactive measures are taken, like participatory disease management with the Kinnauras, to align livelihoods with wildlife and rangeland conservation.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1703  
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Author (up) Luxom, N. M., Singh, R., Theengh, L., Shrestha, P., Sharma, R. K. pdf 
  Title Pastoral practices, pressures, Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice Open Access and human-wildlife relations in high altitude rangelands of eastern Himalaya: A case study of the Dokpa pastoralists of North Sikkim Type Journal Article
  Year 2022 Publication Springer Open Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 12 Issue 37 Pages 1-19  
  Keywords Pastoralism, Socio-political stresses, Institutions, Climatic change, Free-ranging dogs, Participatory rangeland conservation  
  Abstract The pastoral practices of the Dokpa herders of North Sikkim have been transforming in response to the geo-political and socio-economic changes in the region. Against the backdrop of these changes, this study aims to understand the current state of pastoralism in North Sikkim with three specific objectives: (i) to understand the current rangeland management practices of the Dokpa community; (ii) to examine the social, political and ecological stresses to continuity of traditional pastoral livelihoods; and (iii) to document the baseline on human-wildlife relations. We focused on one of the two subset populations of Dokpa herders of North Sikkim and, using a mixed-methods approach, conducted 12 semi-structured interviews, four key respondent interviews and two focused group discussions. The resource use by the Dokpas is unique, and unlike the rest of the Himalayan range, they access the high-altitude pastures in winters and the lower ones in summer. Pastures in the higher altitudes experience heavier winds, which leads to lower levels of snow deposition — thus ensuring access to dried pasture forage for livestock during the lean season. The decisions pertaining to resource management are taken by the head of the local institution Dzumsa, the Pipon. Primary stresses to the continuation of traditional pastoral practices are fragmentation of pastureland post- Sino-Indian war of 1962 and the consequent establishment of armed forces, livestock depredation by free-ranging dogs followed by wild predators and continued socio-economic marginalisation of the pastoralists under a supposedly egalitarian institutional regime. Extreme climatic events in the recent past have also contributed to significant livestock loss. Dokpa transhumant practices are on an overall decline, with most members of the younger generation shifting to non-herding livelihoods. The availability of alternate livelihood options with the improved connectivity, access to education and development of the tourism industry has led to changing aspirations of the younger generations. In only two of the twelve households we surveyed, the younger generation continues herding, while the rest have moved to the cities and towns. In terms of human-wildlife relations, the respondents mostly hold a positive attitude towards wildlife and conservation actions despite livestock predation by wild predators, since the free-ranging dogs cause the highest livestock loss. With the inputs from the Dokpas, we provide recommendations towards a facilitative environment for the continuation of the traditional herding in the region, which is critical for the survival of pastoralism in North Sikkim, presently hinged on less than two dozen of elderly Dokpas.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1700  
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Author (up) Mazoomdaar, J. url 
  Title Cat Among the People Type Magazine Article
  Year 2011 Publication Open Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 8 August Pages 40-45  
  Keywords snow leopard, India, Bhatnagar, Chundawat, Nature Conservation Foundation, Hemis, Kibber, Himmel  
  Abstract  
  Address www.openthemagazine.com  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes http://openthemagazine.com/article/nation/cat-among-the-people Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1358  
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Author (up) Suryawanshi, K. R., Redpath, S., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Ramakrishnan, U., Chaturvedi, V., Smout, S. C., Mishra, C. url 
  Title Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-11  
  Keywords apparent competition, apparent facilitation, conservation conflicts, indirect interactions, predator� prey interactions, snow leopard  
  Abstract An increasing proportion of the world�s poor is rearing

livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing.

Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory

killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern.

A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and

for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey

populations based on the assumption that the carnivores

will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation,

however, could either reduce or intensify with increases

in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in

carnivore abundance. We show that the extent of livestock

predation by the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia

intensifies with increases in the density of wild ungulate

prey, and subsequently stabilizes. We found that snow leopard

density, estimated at seven sites, was a positive linear

function of the density of wild ungulates�the preferred

prey�and showed no discernible relationship with livestock

density. We also found that modelled livestock predation

increased with livestock density. Our results suggest that

snow leopard conservation would benefit from an increase

in wild ungulates, but that would intensify the problem of

livestock predation for pastoralists. The potential benefits of

increased wild prey abundance in reducing livestock predation

can be overwhelmed by a resultant increase in snow leopard

populations. Snow leopard conservation efforts aimed at

facilitating increases in wild prey must be accompanied by greater assistance for better livestock

protection and offsetting the economic damage caused by carnivores.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1457  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Suryawanshi, K. R., Redpath, S. M., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Ramakrishnan, U., Chaturvedi, V., Smout, S. C., Mishra, C. url 
  Title Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards Type Journal Article
  Year Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-11  
  Keywords apparent competition, apparent facilitation, conservation conflicts, indirect interactions, predator� prey interactions, snow leopard  
  Abstract An increasing proportion of the world�s poor is rearing livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing. Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory

killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern. A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey populations based on the assumption that the carnivores will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation, however, could either reduce or intensify with increases in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in carnivore abundance. We show that the extent of livestock predation by the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia

intensifies with increases in the density of wild ungulate prey, and subsequently stabilizes. We found that snow leopard density, estimated at seven sites, was a positive linear function of the density of wild ungulates�the preferred prey�and showed no discernible relationship with livestock density. We also found that modelled livestock predation increased with livestock density. Our results suggest that snow leopard conservation would benefit from an increase in wild ungulates, but that would intensify the problem of livestock predation for pastoralists. The potential benefits of increased wild prey abundance in reducing livestock predation

can be overwhelmed by a resultant increase in snow leopard populations. Snow leopard conservation efforts aimed atfacilitating increases in wild prey must be accompanied by greater assistance for better livestock

protection and offsetting the economic damage caused by carnivores.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1452  
Permanent link to this record
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