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Author (up) Janeč ka, J.E., Munkhtsog, B., Jackson, R.M., Naranbaatar, G., Mallon, D.P. & Murphy, W.J. openurl 
  Title Comparison of noninvasive genetic and camera-trapping techniques for surveying snow leopards Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 92 Issue 4 Pages 771-783  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is widely but sparsely distributed throughout the mountainous regions of central Asia. Detailed information on the status and abundance of the snow leopard is limited because of the logistical challenges faced when working in the rugged terrain it occupies, along with its secretive nature. Camera-trapping and noninvasive genetic techniques have been used successfully to survey this felid. We compared noninvasive genetic and camera-trapping snow leopard surveys in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia. We collected 180 putative snow leopard scats from 3 sites during an 8-day period along 37.74 km of transects. We then conducted a 65-day photographic survey at 1 of these sites, approximately 2 months after scat collection. In the site where both techniques were used noninvasive genetics detected 5 individuals in only 2 days of fieldwork compared to 7 individuals observed in the 65-day camera-trapping session. Estimates of population size from noninvasive genetics ranged between 16 and 19 snow leopards in the 314.3-km2 area surveyed, yielding densities of 4.9–5.9 individuals/100 km2. In comparison, the population estimate from the 65-day photographic survey was 4 individuals (adults only) within the 264-km2 area, for a density estimate of 1.5 snow leopards/100 km2. Higher density estimates from the noninvasive genetic survey were due partly to an inability to determine age and exclude subadults, reduced spatial distribution of sampling points as a consequence of collecting scats along linear transects, and deposition of scats by multiple snow leopards on common sites. Resulting differences could inflate abundance estimated from noninvasive genetic surveys and prevent direct comparison of densities derived from the 2 approaches unless appropriate adjustments are made to the study design.  
  Address  
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  Publisher American Society of Mammalogists Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes DOI: 10.1644/10-MAMM-A-036.1; URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1644/10-MAMM-A-036.1 Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1351  
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Author (up) Oli, M. url  openurl
  Title Snow leopards and blue sheep in Nepal: Densities and predator: Prey ratio Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 75 Issue Pages 998-1004  
  Keywords snow leopard,Panthera uncia,blue sheep,Pseudois nayaur,density,predator:prey ratio,harvest rate,livestock predation,Nepal  
  Abstract I studied snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Manang District, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, to estimate numbers and analyze predatorprey interactions. Five to seven adult leopards used the 105-km2 study area, a density of 4.8 to 6.7 leopards/100 km2. Density of blue sheep was 6.6-10.2 sheep/km2, and biomass density was 304 kg/km2. Estimated relative biomass consumed by snow leopards suggested that blue sheep were the most important prey; marmots (Marmota himalayana) also contributed significantly to the diet of snow leopards. Snow leopards in Manang were estimated to harvest 9-20% of total biomass and 11-24% of total number of blue sheep annually. Snow leopard :blue sheep ratio was 1 :1 14-1 :159 on a weight basis, which was considered sustainable given the importance of small mammals in the leopard's diet and the absence of other competing predators.  
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  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 894 Serial 741  
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Author (up) Oli, M.K. url  openurl
  Title Snow leopards and blue sheep in Nepal: Densities and predator: prey ratio Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 75 Issue 4 Pages 998-1004  
  Keywords Nepal; blue-sheep; prey; livestock; predation; blue; sheep; browse; 740; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; blue sheep; densities; density; predator  
  Abstract I studied snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Manang District, Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, to estimate numbers and analyze predator-prey interactions. Five to seven adult leopards used the 10-5-km-2 study area, a density of 4.8 to 6.7 leopards/100 km-2. Density of blue sheep was 6.6 10.2 sheep/km-2, and biomass density was 304 kg/km-2. Estimated relative biomass consumed by snow leopards suggested that blue sheep were the most important prey; marmots (Marmota himalayana) also contributed significantly to the diel of snow leopards Snow leopards in Manang were estimated to harvest 9-20% of total biomass and 11-24% of total number of blue sheep annually. Snow leopard: blue sheep ratio was 1:114-1:159 on a weight basis, which was considered sustainable given the importance of small mammals in the leopard's diet and the absence of other competing predators.  
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  Notes Document Type: English Call Number: 599.05 JO Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 236 Serial 746  
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Author (up) Wolf, M.; Ale, S. url  openurl
  Title Signs at the Top: Habitat Features Influencing Snow Leopard Uncia Uncia Activity in Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 90 Issue 3 Pages 604-611  
  Keywords activity patterns,human activity,Nepal,predator-prey,sign data,Uncia uncia  
  Abstract We used logistic regression to examine factors that affected the spatial distribution of sign (scrapes, feces, footprints, spray or scent marks, and rubbing sites) in a newly reestablished population of snow leopards (Uncia uncia) in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal. Our results indicate that terrain and human activity were the most important factors determining the spatial distribution of leopard activity, whereas presence of their major prey species (Himalayan tahr [Hemitragus jemlahicus]) had only a moderate effect. This suggests that localities at which these animals are active represent a trade-off between suitable habitat and avoidance of potential risk from anthropogenic origins. However, the influence of prey presence was likely underestimated because of the methodology used, and likely weighed in the trade-off as well.  
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  Notes Department of Biological Sciences (M/C 066), University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, 3352 SES, Chicago, IL 60607-7060, USA Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1026 Serial 1027  
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