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Author Schmidt, A.M.; Hess, D.L.; Schmidt, M.J.; Lewis, C.R. url  openurl
  Title Serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone and frequency of sexual behaviour during the normal oestrous cycle in the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication J Reprod Fertil Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 98 Issue 1 Pages 91-95  
  Keywords Animal; Animals; zoo; physiology; Carnivora; Estradiol; Blood; estrus; Female; Progesterone; Seasons; Sex; behavior; Support; U.S.Gov't; P.H.S.; browse; us; government; gov't; 490  
  Abstract Serum oestradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured at weekly intervals for six months, and correlated with daily behavioural observations in two adult female snow leopards (Panthera uncia). Three oestradiol peaks (> 21 pg ml-1; interval 3.6 weeks) were identified in a snow leopardess housed alone (two more were probably missed because of the weekly sampling schedule), and three oestradiol peaks were identified in a snow leopardess housed with a male as a breeding pair (interval 6 weeks). Daily frequencies of feline reproductive behaviour averaged 1.77 observations per observation period during weeks of high oestradiol and 0.62 during weeks of low oestradiol. Progesterone concentrations did not rise above baseline values (< 2 ng ml-1) in the isolated animal, but 6 weeks of high progesterone concentrations (4.9- 38.8 ng ml-1) was recorded in the paired snow leopardess following mating. No offspring were produced. Snow leopards were observed daily for an additional 4.5 years. Sexual behaviour peaks could be clearly identified from December through April, and average daily sexual behaviour scores were higher during these months than during the rest of the year. Intervals between sexual behaviour peaks for the isolated snow leopardess averaged 3.03 weeks. The sexual behaviour of the paired snow leopards decreased for 8-9 weeks following mating when no offspring were produced, and decreased for 13 weeks in one year when a single cub was born.  
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  ISSN 0022-4251 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 204 Serial 874  
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Author Roth, T.L.; Howard, J.G.; Donoghue, A.M.; Swanson, W.F.; Wildt, D.E. url  openurl
  Title Function and culture requirements of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) spermatozoa in vitro Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication J Reprod Fertil Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 101 Issue 3 Pages 563-569  
  Keywords Animal; Carnivora; physiology; Cell; survival; Cells; Cultured; Comparative; study; Culture; Media; Female; Male; Pentoxifylline; Sperm; Motility; Ovum; Interactions; Spermatozoa; cytology; Support; Non-U.S.Gov't; U.S.Gov't; P.H.S.; browse; non; us; gov't; government; 190  
  Abstract Electroejaculates from eight snow leopards were used to determine how the motility of spermatozoa was influenced by (i) type of media (Ham's F10, PBS, human tubal fluid or RPMI-1640); (ii) holding temperature (23 degrees C versus 37 degrees C); (iii) washing of spermatozoa and (iv) a sperm metabolic enhancer, pentoxifylline. The duration of sperm motility was assessed by evaluating samples in each treatment every hour for 6 h and a sperm motility index (a value combining percentage sperm motility and rate of forward progression) calculated. Spermatozoa from the Ham's F10, PBS and PBS plus pentoxifylline treatments were also co-incubated with zona-intact, domestic cat eggs that were fixed and evaluated for spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida, penetrating the outer and inner layers of the zona pellucida and within the perivitelline space. During the 6 h co-incubation, the sperm motility index in PBS with pentoxifylline was greater (P < 0.05) than in PBS alone which, in turn, was greater (P < 0.05) than in the other three test media. Washing the spermatozoa enhanced (P < 0.05) motility in both PBS and PBS plus pentoxifylline relative to unwashed samples, but there was no effect (P > 0.05) of holding temperature. Pentoxifylline supplementation enhanced (P < 0.05) the proportion of cat eggs with bound, but not penetrated, snow leopard spermatozoa in the inner layer of the zona pellucida, and there were no spermatozoa in the perivitelline space.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4251 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 253 Serial 828  
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Author Johnston, L.A.; Armstrong, D.L.; Brown, J.L. url  openurl
  Title Seasonal effects on seminal and endocrine traits in the captive snow leopard (Panthera uncia) Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication J Reprod Fertil Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 102 Issue 1 Pages 229-236  
  Keywords Animal; Carnivora; physiology; Comparative; study; Fsh; Blood; Gonadotropins; Pituitary; Lh; Male; Seasons; Semen; Sperm; Motility; Spermatozoa; cytology; Testosterone; browse; 180  
  Abstract The annual reproductive cycle of the male snow leopard (Panthera uncia) was characterized by evaluating seminal and endocrine traits monthly. Testicular volume was greatest (P < 0.05) during the winter months when the quality of ejaculate was optimal. Ejaculate volume, total sperm concentration ml-1, motile sperm concentration per ejaculate, sperm morphology and sperm motility index were lowest during the summer and autumn months compared with the winter and spring. Peripheral LH, FSH and testosterone concentrations were also lowest during the summer months, increasing during the autumn just before the increase in semen quality, and were maximal during the winter months. There was a direct relationship (P < 0.01) between: (1) testosterone and testicular volume, total sperm concentration ml-1, motile sperm concentration per ejaculate and ejaculate volume, and (2) LH and testicular volume and motile sperm concentration per ejaculate. In summary, although spermatozoa were recovered throughout the year, optimal gamete quality was observed during the winter and spring. Although previous studies in felids have demonstrated seasonal effects on either seminal or endocrine traits, this is the first study to demonstrate a distinct effect of season on both pituitary and testicular function.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4251 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Document Type: eng Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 252 Serial 504  
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