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Author (up) Berger, J., Buuveibaatar, B., Mishra, C.
Title Globalization of the Cashmere Market and the Decline of Large Mammals in Central Asia Type Journal Article
Year Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 679-689
Keywords fashion, herders, India, Mongolia, saiga, trade
Abstract As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and

human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has

indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry

creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central

Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which

affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized

that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland

where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass

of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis.

In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for

herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica). That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries

fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China’s Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard (Panthera uncia), khulan (Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere.
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Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1398
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Author (up) LI. J, WANG. D, YIN. H,ZHAXI. D, JIAGONG. Z,SCHALLER. G. B,MISHRA. C,MCCARTHY. T. M, WANG. H,WU. L,XIAO. L,BASANG. L,ZHANG. Y,ZHOU. Y,LU. Z
Title Role of Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries in Snow Leopard Conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 00 Issue Pages 1-8
Keywords conservation strategy, distribution, MaxEnt, nature reserve, Panthera uncia, sacred mountain
Abstract The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits the rugged mountains in 12 countries of Central Asia,

including the Tibetan Plateau. Due to poaching, decreased abundance of prey, and habitat degradation, it was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 1972. Current conservation strategies, including nature reserves and incentive programs, have limited capacities to protect snow leopards. We investigated the role of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in snow leopard conservation in the Sanjiangyuan region in China’s Qinghai Province on the Tibetan Plateau. From 2009 to 2011, we systematically surveyed snow leopards in the Sanjiangyuan region. We used the MaxEnt model to determine the relation of their presence to environmental variables (e.g., elevation, ruggedness) and to predict snow leopard distribution. Model results showed 89,602 km2 of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan region, of which 7674 km2 lay within Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve’s core zones. We analyzed the spatial relation between snow leopard habitat and Buddhist monasteries and found that 46% of monasteries were located in snow leopard habitat and 90% were within 5 km of snow leopard habitat. The 336 monasteries in the Sanjiangyuan region could protect more snow leopard habitat (8342 km2) through social norms and active patrols than the nature reserve’s core zones. We conducted 144 household interviews to identify local herders’ attitudes and behavior toward snow leopards and other wildlife. Most local herders claimed that they did not kill wildlife, and 42% said they did not kill wildlife because it was a sin in Buddhism. Our results indicate monasteries play an important role in snow leopard conservation. Monastery-based snow leopard conservation could be extended to other Tibetan Buddhist regions that in total would encompass about 80% of the global range of snow leopards.
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Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1400
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Author (up) Mishra, C.; Allen, P.; McCarthy, T.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Agvaantserengiin, B.; Prins H.
Title The role of incentive programs in conserving the snow leopard Type Miscellaneous
Year 2003 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 17 Issue Pages 1512-1520
Keywords Central Asia; community; conservation; herder; incentive program; India; livestock; Mongolia; pastoralists; poaching; retaliatory killing; snow leopard; Uncia uncia
Abstract Pastoralists and their livestock share much of the habitat of the snow leopard (Uncia uncia) across south and central Asia. The levels of livestock predation by the snow leopard and other carnivores are high, and retaliatory killing by the herders is a direct threat to carnivore populations. Depletion of wild prey by poaching and competition from livestock also poses an indirect threat to the region's carnivores. Conservationists working in these underdeveloped areas that face serious economic damage from livestock losses have turned to incentive programs to motivate local communities to protect carnivores. We describe a pilot incentive program in India that aims to offset losses due to livestock predation and to enhance wild prey density by creating livestock-free areas on common land. We also describe how income generation from handicrafts in Mongolia is helping curtail poaching and retaliatory killing of snow leopards. However, initiatives to offset the costs of living with carnivores and to make conservation beneficial to affected people have thus far been small, isolated, and heavily subsidized. Making these initiatives more comprehensive, expanding their coverage, and internalizing their costs are future challenged for the conservation of large carnivores such as the snow leopard.
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 904 Serial 693
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Author (up) Mishra, C.; Rawat, G.S.
Title Livestock grazing and Biodiversity Conservation: Comments on Saberwal Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 12 Issue Pages 25-32
Keywords conservation; Saberwal; biodiversity; livestock; grazing; predator; prey; browse; 1950
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Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 341 Serial 690
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Author (up) Saberwal, V.K.
Title Pastoral Politics:gaddi grazing, degradation and biodiversity conservation in Himachal Pradesh, India Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 10 Issue Pages 741-749
Keywords grazing; livestock; herders; herder; conservation; biodiversity; Himachal-Pradesh; India; browse; himachal pradesh; 1980
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 290 Serial 838
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Author (up) Saltz, D.; Rowen, M.; Rubenstein, D.
Title The effect of space-use patterns of reintroduced Asiatic wild ass on effective population size Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 1852-1861
Keywords Israel; reintroduction; ungulates; conservation; population; territorial; 5260
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Notes Full text available at URL Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 511 Serial 840
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Author (up) Sharma, S., Dutta, T., Bhatnagar, Y.V.
Title Marking site selection by free-ranging snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Conservation Biology in Asia Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 197-213
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Notes Paper 13 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1131
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Author (up) Sharma, S., Thapa, K., Chalise, M., Dutta, T., Bhatnagar, Y.V., McCarthy, T.
Title The snow leopard in Himalaya: A step towards their conservation by studying their distribution, marking habitat selection, coexistence with other predators, and wild prey-livestock-predator interaction Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Conservation Biology in Asia Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 184-196
Keywords Himalaya, Nepal, ecology, snow leopard, Uncia uncia, prey, livestock, predator
Abstract Snow leopard (Uncia uncial) is a flagship species of the Himalaya. Very few studies have been done on the ecology of this species in the Himalaya. This paper presents an overview of four studies conducted on snow leopards in Nepal and India, dealing with various aspects of snow leopard ecology including their status assessment, making behaviour, habitat selection, food habits, and impact on livestock. The information generated by these studies is useful in planning effective conservation and management strategies for this endangered top predator of high mountains.
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Notes Paper 12; From: Pages 184-196 of Conservation Biology in Asia (2006) McNeely, J.A., T. M. McCarthy, A. Smith, L.Olsvig-Whittaker, and E.D. Wikramanayake (editors). Published by the Society for Conservation Biology Asia Section and Resources Himalaya, Kathmandu, Nepal, 455 pp. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1130
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Author (up) Suryawanshi, K. R., Bhatia, S., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Redpath, S., Mishra, C
Title Multiscale Factors Affecting Human Attitudes toward Snow Leopards and Wolves Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Conservation biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 00 Issue Pages 1-10
Keywords Canis lupus, carnivore, human–wildlife conflicts, Panthera uncia, wildlife acceptance
Abstract The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between

them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local

residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores,

but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined.We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus).

We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in

the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured

variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors.We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged.
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Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1417
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