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Author Panwar, H.S.
Title Report on the snow leopard research project of Wildlife Institute of India Type Report
Year 1988 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (down) 1-2
Keywords Himalaya; Himalayas; India; international snow leopard trust; research; snow leopard; survey
Abstract Snow leopard survey conducted in Indian Himalayas between November 1985 and July 1986.
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 987 Serial 759
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Author Raghavan, B.; Bhatnagar, Y.; Qureshi, Q.
Title Interactions between livestock and Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei); final report Type Report
Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (down) 1-46
Keywords Interactions; interaction; livestock; Ladakh; urial; ovis; endangered; Animal; Iucn; 2000; Cites; indian; wildlife; protection; number; 1960; 70; hunting; meat; fox; Chundawat; population; range; species; recent; humans; Human; Pressure; habitat; areas; area; human activity; activity; activities; agriculture; pastoralism; development; dam; Base; threats; threat; poaching; grazing; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya; Competition; resource; presence; India; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; program
Abstract The Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei) is a highly endangered animal (IUCN Red List 2000) listed in the Appendix 1 of CITES and Schedule 1 of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Its numbers had been reduced to a few hundred individuals in the 1960s and 70s through hunting for trophies and meat (Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). However, with the protection bestowed by the IWPA 1972, and resultant decrease in hunting, the population seems to have shown a marginal increase to about 1000-1500 individuals in its range in Ladakh (Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). Although the species had in the past, been able to coexist with the predominantly Buddhist society of Ladakh, the recent increase in the population of both humans and their livestock has placed immense pressures on its habitat (Shackleton 1997, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). This is especially important considering that the Ladakh urial habitat coincides with the areas of maximum human activity in terms of settlements, agriculture, pastoralism and development, in Ladakh (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). Increased developmental activities such as construction of roads, dams, and military bases in these areas have also increased the access to their habitat. This has consequently made the species more vulnerable to the threats of poaching and habitat destruction (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2002). Pressure from increased livestock grazing is one of the major threats faced by the species today (Shackleton 1997, Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, IUCN Red List 2000 Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). In the impoverished habitat provided by the Trans-Himalayas, there is great competition for the scarce resources between various animal species surviving here (Fox 1996, Mishra 2001). The presence of livestock intensifies this competition and can either force the species out of its niche (competitive exclusion) by displacing it from that area or resource, or lead to partitioning of resources between the species, spatially or temporally, for coexistence (Begon et al. 1986, Gause 1934).
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Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program. Wildlife Institute of India. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1075 Serial 802
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Author Thapa, K.
Title Is their any correlation between abundance of blue sheep population and livestock depredation by snow leopards in the Phu Valley, Manang District, Annapurna Conservation Area? Final report Type Report
Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (down) 1-19
Keywords abundance; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; population; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; valley; Manang; annapurna; annapurna conservation area; Annapurna-Conservation-Area; conservation; area; Report; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; Nepal
Abstract This study was undertaken in the Phu valley of Manang district in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal,

Spring, 2004 and 2005. I used the Snow Leopard Management Information System (“second order” survey technique), to determine

the relative abundance of snow leopards in delineated areas in Phu valley. Transects routes were plotted by

randomly selected feasible landforms such as along ridgelines, cliff bases and river bluffs where snow

leopards sign is likely to be found. Altogether, 16 transects (total length of 7.912 km) were laid down (mean

transect length=0.495 km). They revealed, 54 sign sites (both relic and non-relic) and altogether 88 signs (72

scrapes, 11 feces, 3 scent mark, 2 pugmarks and 1 hair) were recorded (6.8 site/km and 11.1 signs/km). There

were 61.1% non-relic and 38.9% relic sites. The density of snow leopards in Phu Valley may be 4-5 snow

leopards/100 kmý.It was found that the Ghyo block had the highest sign density (13.6 mean sign item/km)

and Phu block (9.8 mean sign item/km) and the lowest in Ngoru block (3.9 mean sign item/km.). For blue sheep, direct count method was applied from different appropriate vantage points (fixed-point

count). I counted total individuals in each herd and classified all individuals whenever possible, using 8 X24

binocular and 15-60x spotting scope. A total 37 blue sheep herds and 1209 individuals were observed in

192.25 kmý of the study area (blue sheep density, 6.3 kmý). Average herd size was 32.68. Herd size varied

from 1 to 103 animals (the largest so far recorded). The average sex ratio male to female for the entire survey

area was 0.67. Recruitment rate was 47.13. The ratio of yearlings to adult female was 0.45. In Ghyo block

had total 168 blue sheep (area, 44.08 km2 or 3.8/ km2 i.e. 137.2 kg/ kmý). Blue sheep density in Ngoru block

showed 4.7/km2 (area, 65.47 km2). Highest density of blue sheep among three blocks was recorded in Phu

block, 8.9/km2 (or 320 kg/km2) in its 82.70 km2 area. A standard questionnaire was designed, and interviews conducted for relevant information was collected on

livestock depredation patterns (total household survey). Out of 33 households surveyed, 30 reported that they

had livestock depredation by the snow leopard in 2004. Altogether 58 animals were reportedly lost to snow

leopards (3.1% of the total mortality). Out of the estimated standing available biomass (1, 83,483kg) in the

Phu valley at least 2220 kg or 1.3% of the total livestock biomass was consumed by snow leopards in the

year of our study (2004). It was estimated that in the Phu valley annually 1.8 animals were lost per household

to snow leopards. This means approx. Rs.413560 (US$ 5,908) is lost annually in the valley (US$

179/household/annum). Ghyo block, had the highest animals loss (53.4%), followed by Phu block (36.2%)

and Ngoru block (10.3%) to snow leopards. There is positive correlation among the densities of blue sheep, relative abundance of the snow leopard and

livestock depredation. Blue sheep is the main prey species of the snow leopard in Phu valley and its

conservation therefore matters to reduce livestock depredation. A general patterns appears here that shows

that blue sheep (prey) abundance determine snow leopard (predator) abundance and that livestock

depredation by snow leopards may be minimal where there is good population of blue sheep, and vice versa.
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Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program, 2005. Annapurna Conservation Area Project, Pokhara, Nepal. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1078 Serial 959
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Author The Snow Leopard Conservancy
Title A Survey of Kathmandu-based Trekking Agencies: Market Opportunities for Linking Community-Based Ecotourism with the Conservation of Snow Leopard in the Annapurna Conservation Area. Report prepared for WWF-Nepal Programme Type Report
Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume SLC Field Series Document No. 4 Issue Pages (down) 1-22
Keywords survey; trekking; linking; community-based; ecotourism; conservation; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; annapurna; annapurna conservation area; Annapurna-Conservation-Area; area; Report; trust; nature; nature conservation; Acap; Snow Leopard Conservancy; project; Manang; local; community; environment; Culture; population; number; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; endangered; cat; prey; Himalaya; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; kill; livestock; killing; herders; herder; conflict; local people; people; wildlife; tourism; incentive; protect; predator; conserve; alpine; habitat
Abstract In 2001 the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation (KMTNC), Annapurna Conservation Area (ACAP), Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) and WWF-Nepal initiated a collaborative project aimed at enhancing ecotourism in the Manang area, in ways that strengthen benefits to local communities while also protecting the environment and the local culture. Manang is known for its relatively dense snow leopard population, along with supporting good numbers of blue sheep, the endangered cat's principal prey through much of the Himalaya. However, snow leopards periodically kill many livestock, leading to retributive killing by herders along with other associated people-wildlife conflict. In order to encourage the local people to better co-exist with snow leopards and other wildlife, SLC, WWF-Nepal and ACAP agreed to explore ways of providing tourism benefits to local communities as an incentive to protect this rare predator and conserve its alpine habitat. Key in this regard is the possibility of developing locally guided nature treks, and accordingly, this survey was conducted in order to assess existing market opportunities and constraints to such ecotourism enterprise.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Los Gatos, California Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1022 Serial 962
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Author Zahler, P.; Graham, P.
Title War and wildlife: the Afghanistan conflict and its effects on the environment Type Report
Year 2001 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (down) 1-10
Keywords war; wildlife; Afghanistan; conflict; effects; environment; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; Islt; environmental; Organization; conservation; endangered; mountain; mountain ecosystem; mountain-ecosystem; ecosystem; approach; local; local people; people; Media; government; public; Report
Abstract The International Snow Leopard Trust (ISLT) is a nonprofit environmental organization dedicated to the conservation of the endangered snow leopard and its mountain ecosystem through a balanced approach that considers the needs of the local people and the environment. As such, we wish to stress that the ISLT does not have a position regarding the present conflict in Afghanistan. However, this organization believes that there are important repercussions regarding this conflict that have yet to be addressed in the media, within government circles, or among the public. This report documents some of these repercussions so that they may be included in the present dialog.
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Publisher International Snow Leopard Trust Place of Publication Seattle Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes ISLT special report. Peter Zahler from Wildlife Conservation Society & Peter Graham from ISLT. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 975 Serial 1067
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Author Allen, P.; Macray, D.
Title Snow Leopard Enterprises Description and Summarized Business Plan Type Conference Article
Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (down)
Keywords snow; leopard; enterprises; buisness; plan; habitat; humans; conflict; irbis; products; wool; conservation; marketing; Mongolia; social; economic; conflicts; country; countries; socks; hats; gloves; 4890; Human; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; central; Central Asia; asia; ecosystem; region; populations; population; herders; herder; threat; potential; impact; environment; Elements; landscape; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; snow-leopard-enterprises
Abstract The habitat for both humans and snow leopards in Central Asia is marginal, the ecosystem fragile. The struggle for humans to survive has often, unfortunately, brought them into conflict with the region's dwindling snow leopard populations. Herders commonly see leopards as a threat to their way of life and well-being. Efforts to improve the living conditions of humans must consider potential impacts on the environment. Likewise, conservation initiatives cannot ignore humans as elements of the landscape with a right to live with dignity and pride. Based on these principles, the International Snow Leopard Trust has developed a new conservation model that addresses the needs of all concerned.

We call it Snow Leopard Enterprises..
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Title, Monographic: Proceedings of the Snow Leopard Survival SummitPlace of Meeting: Seattle,WA Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 475 Serial 68
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Author Anonymous
Title Central Asian Republic Snow Leopard Specialists Plan Joint Conservation Strategy Type Miscellaneous
Year Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (down)
Keywords Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Uzbekistan; Russia; Asia-Irbis; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; Tajikistan; poaching; habitat; habitat-degradation; trade; skins; pelts; coat; fur; bones; medicine; status; hunting; ibex; marmots; Islt; Gyssar; Nabu; Wwf; kazakstan; browse; protected; area; degradation; world wildlife fund; international snow leopard trust; asia; irbis; 3950
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Notes Full text at URL Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1 Serial 75
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Author Anonymous
Title Livestock Predation Control Workshop Type Miscellaneous
Year 1999 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (down)
Keywords Lahul-Spiti; Ladakh; Hemis; parks; reserves; refuge; protected-area; argali; abix; blue-sheep; wolves; distribution; status; population; poaching; hunting; trade; skins; livestock; pelts; coat; fur; bones; medicine; prey-depletion; herders; habitat; habitat-degradation; tourism; Tmi; Islt; predator; prey; conflict; compensation; trekking; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; depletion; degradation; international snow leopard trust; 3940
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Notes Full Text at URLDate of Meeting: Ladakh (1999 Oct 6- Oct 10 ) Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 359 Serial 86
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Author Jackson, R.; Fox, J.L.
Title Snow Leopard and Prey Species Workshop in Bhutan Type Miscellaneous
Year Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (down)
Keywords Jigme-Dorji; Bhutan; workshop; Slims; blue-sheep; tourism; Islt; parks; reserves; protected-areas; tracks; surveys; international snow leopard trust; blue; sheep; browse; 4070
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Notes Full Text at URL Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 6 Serial 431
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Author McCarthy, T.
Title Snow Leopard Conservation Plan for the Republic of Mongolia Type Miscellaneous
Year 1999 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages (down)
Keywords Mongolia; conservation; legal-status; Iunc; Cites; distribution; status; Altay; gobi; parks; preserves; habitat; reserves; refuge; protected-area; poaching; hunting; trade; furs; pelts; skins; coats; bones; trapping; livestock; herders; killing; habitat-fragmentation; threats; Disease; prey; diet; Mne; laws; education; management; Macne; Wwf; Islt; regulations; monitoring; Slims; tourism; conflict; browse; legal status; legal; protected; area; fragmentation; world wildlife fund; international snow leopard trust; 3890
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Notes Full Text Available at URL: DRAFT Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 366 Serial 657
Permanent link to this record