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Author (up) Lutz, H.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Fehr, D.; Leutenegger, C.; Hartmann, M.; Ossent, P.; Grob, M.; Elgizoli, M.; Weilenmann, P. url  openurl
  Title Liberation of the wilderness of wild felids bred under human custody: Danger of release of viral infections Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Schweizer Archiv fuer Tierheilkunde Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 138 Issue 12 Pages 579-585  
  Keywords endangered-species; European-Wild-Cat; Fiv; Fpv; Host; Human-Custody; infection; Pathogen; Reintroduction-Projects; Relocation-Projects; survival; Tibet; Veterinary-Medicine; Viral-Disease; Viral-Infection; Wild-Felid; Wild-Felid-Breeding; Wilderness-Liberation; Wildlife-Management; browse; endangered; species; european; wild; cat; Human; custody; reintroduction; project; relocation; veterinary; medicine; Viral; Disease; wild felid; breeding; wilderness; liberation; management; 690  
  Abstract There are several felidae amongst the numerous endangered species. Means of aiding survival are the reintroduction to the wild of animals bred under the auspices of man and their relocation from densely populated to thinly populated areas. It is unlikely that the dangers of such reintroduction or relocation projects have been examined sufficiently in respect to the risks of virus infections confronting individuals kept in zoos or similar situations. This report presents infections may be expected to occur when relo- three examples to illustrate that accidental virus cating and reintroducing wild cats. The first example is the reintroduction of captive snow leopards. Zoo bred snow leopards may be infected with FIV, a virus infection that is highly unlikely to occur in the original hirnalayan highlands of Tibet and China. A second example is of several cases of FIP that occured in European wild cats bred in groups in captivity. The third example mentioned is the relocation of hons from East Africa where all the commonly known feline viruses are wide-spread to the Etosha National Park. In the latter, virus infections such as FIV, FCV and FPV do not occur. The indiscriminate relocation and reintroduction of the wild cats mentioned here harbours a potential of undesirable consequences.  
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  Notes Document Type: German Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 287 Serial 629  
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Author (up) Saltz, D.; Rowen, M.; Rubenstein, D. url  openurl
  Title The effect of space-use patterns of reintroduced Asiatic wild ass on effective population size Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages 1852-1861  
  Keywords Israel; reintroduction; ungulates; conservation; population; territorial; 5260  
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  Notes Full text available at URL Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 511 Serial 840  
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Author (up) Shrestha, B. url  openurl
  Title Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Report
  Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-35  
  Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; abundance; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; resource; predators; predator; ecological; impact; region; community; structure; number; research; population; status; density; densities; wild; prey species; prey-species; species; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; game; birds; diet; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; awareness; co-existence; ungulates; ungulate; Human; using; areas; area; monitoring; transect; Hair; identification; scat; attack; patterns; sighting; 1760; populations; birth; Male; Female; young; domestic; domestic livestock; 120; scats; yak; Dog; pika; wildlife; Seasons; winter; horse; study; cover; land; predation; Pressure; development; strategy; threatened; threatened species; threatened-species; conflicts; conflict; people; control; husbandry; compensation; reintroduction; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; free ranging  
  Abstract Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.  
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  Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Forum of Natural Resource Managers, Nepal. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1076 Serial 887  
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Author (up) Wemmer, C.; Sunquist, M. url  openurl
  Title Felid Reintroductions: Economic and Energetic Considerations Type Conference Article
  Year 1988 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 193-205  
  Keywords reintroduction; captivity; breeding; conservation; zoo; zoos; browse; 1770  
  Abstract Reintroduction and captive breeding are often touted as panaceas for extinction in the wild. The populace at large, educated insuch matters by the mass media, places great faith in such wildlife technology. Furthermore, the wildlife professionals who develope recovery and managemnt plans for endangered species often include a section on reintroduction and sometimes advocate captive breeding as a source of colonizing stock.  
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  Publisher International Snow Leopard Trust and Wildlife Institute of India Place of Publication India Editor H.Freeman  
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  Notes Full Text at URLTitle, Monographic: Fifth International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: Srinagar, IndiaDate of Copyright: 1988 Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 135 Serial 1014  
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