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Author Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association
Title Mongolian Biosphere & Ecology Association Report March 2010 Type Manuscript
Year 2010 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords nature; tourism; surveys; survey; snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; attack; domestic; Animals; Animal; illegal; illegal hunting; hunting; territory; province; 2010; hunt; 1990; movements; movement; pasture; desert; number; species; birds; river; mountain; hunters; hunter; recent; government; structure; management; national; central; people; Report; gobi; Gobi Desert; reproduction; Adult; meat; food; ibex; wild; wild sheep; sheep; marmot; nutrition; schools; population; use; local; big; big game; big-game; game; 310; mountains; wolves; wolf; Seasons; times; zones; global; Mongolia; 40; history; ecology
Abstract In accordance with order of the Ministry of Nature and Tourism,

zoologists of our association have made surveys in three ways such as

reasons why snow leopards attack domestic animals, “Snow leopard” trial

operation to count them and illegal hunting in territories of Khovd,

Gobi-Altai, Bayankhongor, Uvurkhangai and Umnugobi provinces from

September 2009 to January 2010. As result of these surveys it has made

the following conclusions in the followings: Reason to hunt them illegally: the principal reason is that

administrative units have been increased and territories of

administrative units have been diminished. There have been four

provinces in 1924 to 1926, 18 since 1965, 21 since 1990. Such situation

limits movements of herdsmen completely and pastures digressed much than

ever before. As result of such situation, 70% of pastures become desert.

Such digression caused not only heads of animals and also number of

species. Guarantee is that birds such as owls, cuckoo, willow grouse in

banks of Uyert river, Burkhanbuudai mountain, located in Biger soum,

Gobi-Altai province, which are not hunted by hunters, are disappearing

in the recent two decades. For that reason we consider it is urgently

necessary for the government to convert administrative unit structures

into four provinces. This would influence herdsmen moving across

hundreds km and pastures could depart from digression.

Second reason: cooperative movement won. The issues related to management and strengthening of national

cooperatives, considered by Central Committee of Mongolian People's

Revolutionary Party in the meeting in March 1953 was the start of

cooperatives' movement. Consideration by Yu. Tsedenbal, chairman of

Ministers Council, chairman of the MPRP, on report “Result of to unify

popular units and some important issues to maintain entity management of

agricultural cooperatives” in the fourth meeting by the Central

Committee of Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party /MPRP/ on December

16-17, 1959, proclaimed complete victory of cooperative. At the end of

1959, it could unify 767 small cooperative into 389 ones, unify 99.3 %

of herdsmen and socialize 73.3 % of animals. The remaining of animals

amount 6 million 163 thousands animals, and equals to 26.7% of total

animals. This concerned number of animals related to the article

mentioned that every family should have not more that 50 animals in

Khangai zone and not more 75 animals in Gobi desert. It shows that such

number could not satisfy needs of family if such number is divided into

five main animals in separating with reproduction animals and adult

animals. So herdsmen started hunt hoofed animals secretly and illegally

in order to satisfy their meat needs. Those animals included main food

of snow leopard such as ibex, wild sheep, and marmot. Third reason is that the state used to hunt ibex, which are main

nutrition of snow leopards, every year. The administrative unit of the

soum pursued policy to hunt ibex in order to provide meat needs of

secondary schools and hospitals. That's why this affected decrease of

ibex population. Preciously from 1986 to 1990 the permissions to hunt

one thousands of wild sheep and two thousands of ibexes were hunt for

domestic alimentary use every year. Not less than 10 local hunters of every soum used to take part in big

game of ibexes. Also they hunted many ibexes, chose 3-10 best ibexes and

hid them in the mountains for their consummation during hunting.

Fourth reason: hunting of wolves. Until 1990 the state used to give

prizes to hunter, who killed a wolf in any seasons of the year. Firstly

it offered a sheep for the wolf hunter and later it gave 25 tugrugs /15

USD/. Every year, wolf hunting was organized several times especially

picking wolf-cubs influenced spread and population of wolves. So snow

leopard came to the places where wolves survived before and attack

domestic animals. Such situation continued until 1990. Now population of

ibexes has decreased than before 1990 since the state stopped hunting

wolves, population of wolves increased in mountainous zones. We didn't

consider it had been right since it was natural event. However

population of ibexes decreased. Fifth reason: Global warming. In recent five years it has had a drought

and natural disaster from excessive snow in the places where it has

never had such natural disasters before. But Mongolia has 40 million

heads of domestic animals it has never increased like such quantity in

its history before. We consider it is not incorrect that decrease of

domestic animals could give opportunities to raise population of wild

animals. Our next survey is to make attempt to fix heads of snow leopards

correctly with low costs.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1100 Serial 705
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Author Suryawanshi, K.R.
Title Towards snow leopard prey recovery: understanding the resource use strategies and demographic responses of bharal Pseudois nayaur to livestock grazing and removal; Final project report Type Report
Year 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-43
Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; recovery; resource; use; strategy; demographic; Response; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; livestock; grazing; Report; decline; wild; populations; population; Himalayan; region; Competition; threats; threat; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; study; diet; winter; Test; browse; nutrition; areas; area; young; Female; times; High; Adult; mortality; species; predators; predator; endangered; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya
Abstract Decline of wild prey populations in the Himalayan region, largely due to competition with livestock, has been identified as one of the main threats to the snow leopard Uncia uncia. Studies show that bharal Pseudois nayaur diet is dominated by graminoids during summer, but the proportion of graminoids declines in winter. We explore the causes for the decline of graminoids from bharal winter diet and resulting implications for bharal conservation. We test the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses, (H1) low graminoid availability caused by livestock grazing during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet, and, (H2) bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutrition, to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. Graminoid quality in winter was relatively lower than that of browse, but the difference was not statistically significant. Bharal diet was dominated by graminoids in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to bharal diet declined monotonically with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was three times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. No starvation-related adult mortalities were observed in any of the areas. Composition of bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock free areas is necessary for conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators such as the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program, 2008. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore. Post-graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Wildlife Conservation Society -India program, Bangalore, India. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1077 Serial 952
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Author Wharton, D.; Mainka, S.A.
Title Management and husbandry of the snow leopard Uncia uncia Type Journal Article
Year 1997 Publication International Zoo Yearbook Abbreviated Journal
Volume 35 Issue Pages 139-147
Keywords breeding; captive-management; diet; enclosures; housing; husbandry; nutrition; veterinary-care; zoo; browse; veterinary; care; captive; management; 1290
Abstract The international studbook for the Snow leopard Uncia uncia was established in 1976. The species has been the focus of intensive captive management and as at 1 January 1992, 541 animals were maintained at 160 collections. This paper gives an overview of the diet, housing, breeding and captive management of the species with specific reference to animals maintained in North American collections. A summary of veterinary care reported in the Snow leopard captive-management survey is also given.
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Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 331 Serial 1018
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