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Author Ale S.
Title Have snow leopards made a comeback to the Everest region of Nepal? Type Report
Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-21
Keywords snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; region; Nepal; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; 1960; endangered; Sagarmatha; High; Himalaya; tourism; impact; establishment; national; national park; National-park; park; 1980; area; Tibet; surveys; survey; status; Cats; cat; prey; research; project; sign; transects; transect; length; valley; Response; hunting; recovery; Himalayan; tahr; density; densities; range; pugmarks; sighting; 60; study; population; predators; predator; structure; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; mortality; effects; predation; population dynamics
Abstract In the 1960s, the endangered snow leopard was locally extirpated from the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) region of Nepal. In this Sherpa-inhabited high Himalaya, the flourishing tourism since the ascent of Mt Everest in 1953, has caused both prosperity and adverse impacts, the concern that catalyzed the establishment of Mt. Everest National Park in the region in 1976. In the late 1980s, there were reports that some transient snow leopards may have visited the area from adjoining Tibet, but no biological surveys exist to confirm the status of the cats and their prey. Have snow leopards finally returned to the top of the world? Exploring this question was the main purpose of this research project. We systematically walked altogether 24 sign transects covering over 13 km in length in three valleys, i.e. Namche, Phortse and Gokyo, of the park, and counted several snow leopard signs. The results indicated that snow leopards have made a comeback in the park in response to decades of protective measures, the virtual cessation of hunting and the recovery of the Himalayan tahr which is snow leopard's prey. The average sign density (4.2 signs/km and 2.5 sign sites/km) was comparable to that reported from other parts of the cats' range in the Himalaya. On this basis, we estimated the cat density in the Everest region between 1 to 3 cats per 100 sq km, a figure that was supported by different sets of pugmarks and actual sightings of snow leopards in the 60 km2 sample survey area. In the study area, tahr population had a low reproductive rate (e.g. kids-to-females ratio, 0.1, in Namche). Since predators can influence the size and the structure of prey species populations through mortality and through non-lethal effects or predation risk, snow leopards could have been the cause of the population dynamics of tahr in Sagarmtha, but this study could not confirm this speculation for which further probing may be required.
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Notes Progress report for the International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1063 Serial 50
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Author Ale, S.B.; Yonzon, P.; Thapa, K.
Title Recovery of snow leopard Uncia uncia in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Miscellaneous
Year 2007 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume 41 Issue Pages 89-92
Keywords Nepal; recovery; Sagarmatha Mount Everest National Park; snow leopard; Uncia uncia; surveys; survey; snow; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia-uncia; valley; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; using; information; management; system; research; transects; transect; sign; areas; area; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; 40; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; location; recent; species; grazing; land; Forest; habitat; domestic; wild; ungulates; ungulate; livestock; tourism; development; traditional; land use; land-use; use; wildlife
Abstract From September to November 2004 we conducted surveys of snow leopard Uncia uncia signs in three major valleys in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park in Nepal using the Snow Leopard Information Management System, a standardized survey technique for snow leopard research. We walked 24 transects covering c. 14 km and located 33 sites with 56 snow leopard signs, and 17 signs incidentally in other areas. Snow leopards appear to have re-inhabited the Park, following their disappearance c. 40 years ago, apparently following the recovery of Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus and musk deer Moschus chrysogaster populations. Taken together the locations of all 73 recent snow leopard signs indicate that the species is using predominantly grazing land and shrubland/ open forest at elevations of 3,000-5,000 m, habitat types that are also used by domestic and wild ungulates. Sagarmatha is the homeland of c. 3,500 Buddhist Sherpas with .3,000 livestock. Along with tourism and associated developments in Sagarmatha, traditional land use practices could be used to ensure coexistence of livestock and wildlife, including the recovering snow leopards, and ensure the wellbeing of the Sherpas.
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Notes http://www.snowleopardnetwork.org/bibliography/Ale_2007.pdf Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 884 Serial 58
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Author Allen, P.; Macray, D.
Title Snow Leopard Enterprises Description and Summarized Business Plan Type Conference Article
Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords snow; leopard; enterprises; buisness; plan; habitat; humans; conflict; irbis; products; wool; conservation; marketing; Mongolia; social; economic; conflicts; country; countries; socks; hats; gloves; 4890; Human; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; central; Central Asia; asia; ecosystem; region; populations; population; herders; herder; threat; potential; impact; environment; Elements; landscape; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; snow-leopard-enterprises
Abstract The habitat for both humans and snow leopards in Central Asia is marginal, the ecosystem fragile. The struggle for humans to survive has often, unfortunately, brought them into conflict with the region's dwindling snow leopard populations. Herders commonly see leopards as a threat to their way of life and well-being. Efforts to improve the living conditions of humans must consider potential impacts on the environment. Likewise, conservation initiatives cannot ignore humans as elements of the landscape with a right to live with dignity and pride. Based on these principles, the International Snow Leopard Trust has developed a new conservation model that addresses the needs of all concerned.

We call it Snow Leopard Enterprises..
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle Editor
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Notes Title, Monographic: Proceedings of the Snow Leopard Survival SummitPlace of Meeting: Seattle,WA Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 475 Serial 68
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Author Andriuskevicius, A.
Title Occurrance of Snow Leopards in the Soviet Union Type Journal Article
Year 1980 Publication International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue Pages 59-69
Keywords 2290; area; areas; browse; distribution; park; parks; protected; protected-area; protected area; protected areas; refuge; reserve; reserves; Russia; snow-leopard; snow-leopards; snow leopard; snow leopards; soviet; Soviet-Union; soviet union; status; U.S.S.R.; union; Ussr
Abstract Outlines status and distribution of snow leopard in USSR, including comments on reserves created for the species.
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 51 Serial 73
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Author Aromov B.
Title The Biology of the Snow Leopard in the Hissar Nature Reserve Type Miscellaneous
Year 1995 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 108-109
Keywords Uzbekistan; snow leopard; Hissar ridge; Hissar nature reserve; number; diet; breeding.; 6070; Russian; work; Data; biology; snow; snow-leopard; leopard; nature; reserve; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; times; tracks; pugmarks; Feed; ibex; kills; kill; Age; records; predation; Case; horses; horse; marmot; Himalayan; domestic; goat; wild; wild boar; sheep; Cattle; attack
Abstract The work contains data on biology snow leopard in Hissar nature reserve, Uzbekistan. The number of snow leopards in this reserve has increased from two or four in 1981 to between 13 and 17 individuals in 1994. Since 1981, snow leopards have been sighted 72 times and their tracks or pugmarks 223 times. In the Hissar Nature Reserve snow leopards largely feed on ibex. Over a period of 14 years, 92 kills and remains of ibex aged from one to thirteen years of age have been examined. Other records of predation, by the number of events observed, include 33 cases of juvenile and mature horses, 25 long-tailed marmot (Marmota caudata). 18 Himalayan snowcock (Tetraogallus himalayemis), 17 domestic goat, 13 wild boar (Sus scrofa), five domestic sheep and three incidents involving cattle. Twenty-two attacks on domestic flocks were reported, and these occurred during both the daytime and at night. Snow leopards usually mate between the 20th of February and March 20th. The offspring are born in late April to May, and there are usually two per litter (23 encounters), although a single litter of three has also been recorded.
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Notes Full text available in RussianJournal Title: Proceeding of 8th International Snow Leopard Symposium Islamabad. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 586 Serial 99
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Author Aryal, A.
Title Final Report On Demography and Causes of Mortality of Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve in Nepal Type Report
Year 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-53
Keywords Report; mortality; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; Dhorpatan; hunting; reserve; Nepal; biodiversity; research; training; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; conservation; program; population; Population-Density; density; densities; change; Sex; study; area; High; poaching; Pressure; reducing; number; predators; predator; poison; wolf; wolves; canis; Canis-lupus; lupus; wild; wild boar; prey; prey species; prey-species; species; scats; scat; value; fox; cover; deer; diet; leopards; pika; snow leopards; snow-leopards; soil; Relationship
Abstract A total of 206 individual Blue sheep Pseudois nayaur were estimated in Barse and Phagune blocks of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) and population density was 1.8 Blue sheep/sq.km. There was not significant change in population density from last 4 decades. An average 7 animals/herd (SD-5.5) were classified from twenty nine herds, sheep per herds varying from 1 to 37. Blue sheep has classified into sex ratio on an average 75 male/100females was recorded in study area. The sex ratio was slightly lower but not significantly different from the previous study. Population of Blue sheep was seen stable or not decrease even there was high poaching pressure, the reason may be reducing the number of predators by poison and poaching which has

supported to increase blue sheep population. Because of reducing the predators Wolf Canis lupus, Wild boar population was increasing drastically in high rate and we can observed wild boar above the tree line of DHR. The frequency of occurrence of different prey species in scats of different predators shows that, excluding zero values, the frequencies of different prey species were no significantly different (ö2= 10.3, df = 49, p > 0.05). Most of the scats samples (74%) of Snow leopard, Wolf, Common Leopard, Red fox's cover one prey species while two and three species were present in 18% and 8%, respectively. Barking deer Muntiacus muntjak was the most frequent (18%) of total diet composition of common leopards. Pika Ochotona roylei was the most frequent (28%), and Blue sheep was in second position for diet of snow leopards which cover 21% of total diet composition. 13% of diet covered non-food item such as soil, stones, and vegetable. Pika was most frequent on Wolf and Red fox diet which covered 32% and 30% respectively. There was good positive relationship between the scat density and Blue sheep consumption rate, increasing the scat density, increasing the Blue sheep consumption rate. Blue sheep preference by different predators such as Snow leopard, Common leopard, Wolf and Red fox were 20%, 6%, 13% and 2% of total prey species respectively.
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Notes The Biodiversity Research and Training Forum (BRTF) Nepal. Email: savefauna@yahoo.com Submitted to Snow Leopard Conservation Grants Program, USA. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1064 Serial 104
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Author Begg, T.
Title Nutritional bone disease in the snow leopard Type Book Chapter
Year 1978 Publication International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Vol. 1 Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue Pages 104-107
Keywords bone; captive; Disease; International; pedigree; snow-leopard; snow-leopards; snow leopard; snow leopards; veterinary; zoo
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Publisher Helsinki Zoo Place of Publication Helsinki Editor Blomqvist, L.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1047 Serial 125
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Author Blomqvist, L.
Title Photos of snow leopards Type Book Chapter
Year 1978 Publication International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Vol. 1 Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue Pages 141-151
Keywords captive; captivity; International; pedigree; photo; snow-leopard; snow-leopards; snow leopard; snow leopards; zoo
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Publisher Helsinki Zoo Place of Publication Helsinki Editor Blomqvist, L.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1051 Serial 145
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Author Blomqvist, L.
Title Resolution from the first international snow leopard conference in Helsinki on March 7-8, 1978 Type Book Chapter
Year 1978 Publication International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Vol. 1 Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue Pages 3-5
Keywords International; pedigree; resolutions; snow-leopard; snow-leopards; snow leopard; snow leopards
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Publisher Helsinki Zoo Place of Publication Helsinki Editor Blomqvist, L.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1053 Serial 146
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Author Blomqvist, L.
Title Photos of snow leopards Type Book Chapter
Year 1980 Publication International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue Pages 239-257
Keywords leopard; leopards; photo; snow; snow-leopard; snow-leopards; snow leopard; snow leopards; International; pedigree
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Publisher Helsinki Zoo Place of Publication Helsinki Editor Blomqvist, L.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1091 Serial 153
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