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Author (up) Ahmad, A. url  openurl
  Title Environmental impact assessment in the Himalayas: An ecosystem approach Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1993 Publication Ambio Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 4-9  
  Keywords assessment; environmental; Himalayas; impact  
  Abstract The impact of human activities on the Himalayan bio-geophysical, socioeconomic and cultural environments has been analyzed. The main man-induced activities which threaten the equilibrium of Himalayan Mountain ecosystems are unplanned land use, cultivation on steep slopes, overgrazing, major engineering activities, overexploitation of village or community forests, shifting cultivation, unplanned tourism and urbanization. Cold desert conditions prevail in 41 692 square kilometers of the northwestern Himalayas. The geomorphological conditions and arrested succession, checking the climax formation, are major causes of landslides. Sedimentation, changes in surface and groundwater hydrology and clearfelling of broadleaved plant species have caused eutrophication, drying up of natural springs and receding of glaciers. Wild fauna like Musk deer (Moschus mischiferus) and Snow Leopard (Panthera uncial) are now under threat due to changes in their habitats. Population pressure, migration and settlements are major causes of poverty and agglomeration. And jeopardize the Himalayan environment. Based on detailed environmental impact assessment, an ecosystem approach has been proposed for resources conservation and environmentally sustainable development of the Himalayas.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 929 Serial 39  
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Author (up) Ahmad, A.; Rawat, J.S.; Rai, S.C. url  openurl
  Title An Analysis of the Himalayan Environment and Guidelines for its Management and Ecologically Sustainable Development Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Environmentalist Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 10 Issue 4 Pages 281-298  
  Keywords environmental-assessment; human-impact; sustainable-development; management-guideline; ecological-degradation; mountain-ecosystem; impact-assessment; developing-country; asia; Himalayas; snow-leopard; snow leopard; browse; environmental; assessment; Human; impact; sustainable; development; management; guidline; ecological; degradations; mountain; ecosystem; 830  
  Abstract The impacts of human activities on the bio-geophysical and socio-economic environment of the Himalayas are analysed. The main man-induced activities which have accelerated ecological degradation and threatened the equilibrium of Himalayan mountain ecosystems are stated as: unplanned land use, cultivation on steep slopes, overgrazing, major engineering activities, over-exploitation of village or community forests, lopping of broad leaved plant species, shifting cultivation (short cycle) in north-east India, tourism and recreation. The geomorphological conditions are major factors responsible for landslides which cause major havoc every year in the area. Wild fauna, like musk deer and the snow leopard are now under threat partially due to changes in their habitat and the introduction of exotic plant species. Population pressure and migration are major factors responsible for poverty in the hills. The emigration of the working male population has resulted in the involvement of women as a major work-force. Guidelines, with special emphasis on the application of environmental impact assessments for the management of the Himalayas, are proposed. -from Authors  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 145 Serial 38  
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Author (up) Ale S. url  openurl
  Title Have snow leopards made a comeback to the Everest region of Nepal? Type Report
  Year 2005 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-21  
  Keywords snow; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; leopard; region; Nepal; Report; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; 1960; endangered; Sagarmatha; High; Himalaya; tourism; impact; establishment; national; national park; National-park; park; 1980; area; Tibet; surveys; survey; status; Cats; cat; prey; research; project; sign; transects; transect; length; valley; Response; hunting; recovery; Himalayan; tahr; density; densities; range; pugmarks; sighting; 60; study; population; predators; predator; structure; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; mortality; effects; predation; population dynamics  
  Abstract In the 1960s, the endangered snow leopard was locally extirpated from the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) region of Nepal. In this Sherpa-inhabited high Himalaya, the flourishing tourism since the ascent of Mt Everest in 1953, has caused both prosperity and adverse impacts, the concern that catalyzed the establishment of Mt. Everest National Park in the region in 1976. In the late 1980s, there were reports that some transient snow leopards may have visited the area from adjoining Tibet, but no biological surveys exist to confirm the status of the cats and their prey. Have snow leopards finally returned to the top of the world? Exploring this question was the main purpose of this research project. We systematically walked altogether 24 sign transects covering over 13 km in length in three valleys, i.e. Namche, Phortse and Gokyo, of the park, and counted several snow leopard signs. The results indicated that snow leopards have made a comeback in the park in response to decades of protective measures, the virtual cessation of hunting and the recovery of the Himalayan tahr which is snow leopard's prey. The average sign density (4.2 signs/km and 2.5 sign sites/km) was comparable to that reported from other parts of the cats' range in the Himalaya. On this basis, we estimated the cat density in the Everest region between 1 to 3 cats per 100 sq km, a figure that was supported by different sets of pugmarks and actual sightings of snow leopards in the 60 km2 sample survey area. In the study area, tahr population had a low reproductive rate (e.g. kids-to-females ratio, 0.1, in Namche). Since predators can influence the size and the structure of prey species populations through mortality and through non-lethal effects or predation risk, snow leopards could have been the cause of the population dynamics of tahr in Sagarmtha, but this study could not confirm this speculation for which further probing may be required.  
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  Notes Progress report for the International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1063 Serial 50  
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Author (up) Allen, P.; Macray, D. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard Enterprises Description and Summarized Business Plan Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords snow; leopard; enterprises; buisness; plan; habitat; humans; conflict; irbis; products; wool; conservation; marketing; Mongolia; social; economic; conflicts; country; countries; socks; hats; gloves; 4890; Human; snow leopards; snow leopard; snow-leopards; snow-leopard; leopards; central; Central Asia; asia; ecosystem; region; populations; population; herders; herder; threat; potential; impact; environment; Elements; landscape; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; snow-leopard-enterprises  
  Abstract The habitat for both humans and snow leopards in Central Asia is marginal, the ecosystem fragile. The struggle for humans to survive has often, unfortunately, brought them into conflict with the region's dwindling snow leopard populations. Herders commonly see leopards as a threat to their way of life and well-being. Efforts to improve the living conditions of humans must consider potential impacts on the environment. Likewise, conservation initiatives cannot ignore humans as elements of the landscape with a right to live with dignity and pride. Based on these principles, the International Snow Leopard Trust has developed a new conservation model that addresses the needs of all concerned.

We call it Snow Leopard Enterprises..
 
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  Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Title, Monographic: Proceedings of the Snow Leopard Survival SummitPlace of Meeting: Seattle,WA Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 475 Serial 68  
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Author (up) Izold, J. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard Enterprise: a conservation project that saves an endangered species and supports needy families Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Anim.Keepers' Forum Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 359-364  
  Keywords snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; conservation; project; endangered; endangered species; endangered-species; species; Support; union; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; wild; Iucn; Animals; Animal; tiger; extinction; former; zoo; Freeman; trust; work; cat; community-based; projects; Sle; impact; poverty; community; Mongolia; Kyrgyz; Kyrgyz-Republic; republic; Pakistan; 300; economic; incentives; prey; sustainable; herding; number; territory; income; training; products; wool; local; local people; people; zoos; Woodland-Park-Zoo; park; zoological; ecosystem  
  Abstract The World Conservation Union listed the snow leopard (Uncia uncia) as endangered in 1974. With as few as 3,500 snow leopards left in the wild, scientists placed the snow leopard on the IUCN Red List of critically endangered species shared by animals such as the giant panda and tiger. In an effort to save the snow leopard from extinction, former zoo employee Helen Freeman founded the Snow Leopard Trust in 1981. The Snow Leopard Trust works to save this elusive cat by incorporating community-based conservation projects. One of these project Leopard Enterprise (SLE), impacts poverty stricken communities in Mongolia, Kyrgyz Republic, and Pakistan. It assists over 300 families in its conservation efforts. The economic incentives provided via SLE have led participating communities not to harm the snow leopard or its prey, and to practice sustainable herding. Since the project began in 1997, the number of snow leopards harmed around the communities' territories has dropped to near zero. Additionally, the annual income of families that utilize the benefits of SLE has increased by 25% to 40%. SLE creates this economic benefit by providing the training and equipment necessary to make desirable products from the wool of herd animals. Snow Leopard Trust then purchases these handicraft items from the local people and them globally. Zoos can expand their conservation efforts by simply offering these items in their gift shops. Woodland Park Zoo (WPZ) was the first zoological institution to sell the products, and WPZ continues to generate revenue from them. SLE is a golden opportunity for zoos to increase revenue, assist poor families, and save an endangered species and fragile ecosystem.  
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  Publisher American Association of Zoo Keepers Place of Publication Topeka, Kansas Editor  
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  Notes Author from Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Cleveland, OH, USA Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 976 Serial 425  
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Author (up) Namgail, T. openurl 
  Title Interactions between argali and livestock, Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary, Ladakh, India, Final Project Report Type Report
  Year 2004 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-39  
  Keywords Interactions; interaction; argali; livestock; Gya-Miru; wildlife; sanctuary; sanctuaries; Ladakh; India; project; Report; land-use; land use; region; indian; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya; economy; Animal; products; meat; diet; people; wool; goats; goat; International; High; recent; change; population; grazing; Pressure; pasture; impact; 2000; knowledge; primary; Chundawat; wild; area; Support; ungulate; species; fox; nature; domestic; sheep; habitat; habitat use; use; tibetan; Tibetan argali; ovis; Ovis ammon hodgsoni; ammon; reserve; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; program  
  Abstract Livestock production is the major land-use in Ladakh region of the Indian Trans-Himalaya, and is a crucial sector that drives the region's economy (Anon, 2002). Animal products like meat and milk provide protein to the diet of people, while products like wool and pashmina (soft fibre of goats) find their way to the international market. Such high utility of livestock and the recent socio-economic changes in the region have caused an increase in livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002; Anon. 2002), which, if continue apace, may increase grazing pressure and deteriorate pasture conditions. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess the impact of such escalation in livestock population on the regions wildlife. Although, competitive interaction between wildlife and livestock has been studied elsewhere in the Trans-Himalaya (Bhatnagar et al., 2000; Mishra, 2001; Bagchi et al., 2002), knowledge on this aspect in the Ladakh region is very rudimentary. The rangelands of Ladakh are characterised by low primary productivity (Chundawat & Rawat, 1994), and the wild herbivores are likely to compete with the burgeoning livestock on these impoverished rangelands (Mishra et al., 2002). Thus, given that the area supports a diverse wild ungulate assemblage of eight species (Fox et al., 1991b), and an increasing livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002), the nature of interaction between wildlife and livestock needs to be assessed. During this project, we primarily evaluated the influence of domestic sheep and goat grazing on the habitat use of Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni in a prospective wildlife reserve in Ladakh.  
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  Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program, 2003. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1073 Serial 711  
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Author (up) Shrestha, B. url  openurl
  Title Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Report
  Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-35  
  Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; abundance; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; resource; predators; predator; ecological; impact; region; community; structure; number; research; population; status; density; densities; wild; prey species; prey-species; species; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; game; birds; diet; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; awareness; co-existence; ungulates; ungulate; Human; using; areas; area; monitoring; transect; Hair; identification; scat; attack; patterns; sighting; 1760; populations; birth; Male; Female; young; domestic; domestic livestock; 120; scats; yak; Dog; pika; wildlife; Seasons; winter; horse; study; cover; land; predation; Pressure; development; strategy; threatened; threatened species; threatened-species; conflicts; conflict; people; control; husbandry; compensation; reintroduction; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; free ranging  
  Abstract Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.  
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  Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Forum of Natural Resource Managers, Nepal. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1076 Serial 887  
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Author (up) Suryawanshi, K.R.; Bhatnagar, Y.; Mishra, C. url  openurl
  Title Why should a grazer browse? Livestock impact on winter resource use by bharal Pseudois nayaur Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-10  
  Keywords browse; livestock; impact; winter; resource; use; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; diet; variation; diets; conservation; Media; study; decline; areas; area; grazing; Pressure; plants; plant; sign; feeding; location; population; structure; populations; using; young; Female; times; High; Competition; species; predators; predator; endangered; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya  
  Abstract Many mammalian herbivores show a temporal diet variation between graminoid-dominated and browse dominated diets. We determined the causes of such a diet shift and its implications for conservation of a medium sized ungulate-the bharal Pseudois nayaur. Past studies show that the bharal diet is dominated by graminoids (>80%) during summer, but the contribution of graminoids declines to about 50% in winter. We tested the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses explaining the decline: low graminoid availability during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet; bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutritional quality, in their diet to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. We measured winter graminoid availability in areas with no livestock grazing, areas with relatively moderate livestock grazing, and those with intense livestock grazing pressures. The chemical composition of plants contributing to the bharal diet was analysed. The bharal diet was quantiWed through signs of feeding on vegetation at feeding locations. Population structures of bharal populations were recorded using a total count method. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. The bharal diet was dominated by graminoids (73%) in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to the bharal diet declined monotonically (50, 36%) with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was 3 times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. The composition of the bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Our results suggest that bharal include more browse in their diet during winter due to competition from livestock for graminoids. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock-free areas is necessary for the conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators including the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.  
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  Publisher Springer-Verlag Place of Publication Online Editor  
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  Notes This study was made possible by a grant from the Snow Leopard Network. Additional support was given by the Wildlife Conservation Society-India Program and Nature Conservation Foundation, the Whitley Fund for Nature, the Ford Foundation, and the Nadathur Conservation Trust. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1062 Serial 951  
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Author (up) Wingard, J.R.; Zahler, P. url  openurl
  Title Silent Steppe: The Illegal Wildlife Trade Crisis in Mongolia Type Report
  Year 2006 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-170  
  Keywords steppe; illegal; wildlife; trade; Mongolia; study; threat; populations; population; areas; area; fur; fur trade; fur-trade; game; meat; hunting; Chain; impact; biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; conservation; rural; livelihood; Wildlife-Management; management; survey; survey methods; methods; history; action; International; enforcement; domestic; community-based; approach  
  Abstract The current study in Mongolia is truly groundbreaking, in that it shows that the problem of commercial wildlife trade is also vast, unsustainable, and a major threat to wildlife populations in other areas. This paper's Executive Summary briefs the topics of wildlife trade in Mongolia, fur trade, medicinal trade, game meat trade, trophy and sport hunting, trade chains and markets, trade sustainability, impacts of wildlife trade on biodiversity conservation, impacts of trade on rural livelihoods, enabling wildlife management, and management recommendations. The main content of the paper includes: wildlife trade survey methods, a history of wildlife trade in Mongolia, wildlife take and trade today, enabling wildlife management, and recommendations and priority actions. The recommendations have been divided into six separate sections, including (1) cross-cutting recommendations, (2) international trade enforcement, (3) domestic trade enforcement, (4) hunting management, (5) trophy and sport hunting management, and (6) community-based approaches. Each section identifies short-term, long-term, and regulatory goals in order of priority within each subsection.  
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  Publisher World Bank Place of Publication Washington, D.C. Editor East Asia and Pacific Environment and Social Development Department  
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  Notes Mongolian version. English language translation is also available in the SLN bibliography. Mongolia Discussion Papers. East Asia and Pacific Environment and Social Development Department. Washington D.C.: World Bank. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1079 Serial 1026  
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