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Author Mishra, C.; Van Wieren S.; Ketner, P.; Heitkonig, I.; Prins H.
Title Competition between domestic livestock and wild bharal Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 73 Issue Pages 344-354
Keywords blue sheep,diet,grazing,rangeland,resource,ungulate,wildlife; 5320
Abstract 1. The issue of competition between livestock and wild herbivores has remained contentious. We studied the diets and population structures of the mountain ungulate bharal Pseudois nayaur and seven species of livestock to evaluate whether or not they compete for forage. The study was conducted in the high altitude Spiti Valley, Indian Trans-Himalaya.

2. We compared resource (forage) availability and bharal population structures between rangelands differing in livestock density. Forage availability was estimated by clipping the standing graminoid biomass in sample plots. Livestock and bharal population structures were quantified through annual censuses. Seasonal diets of livestock were studied by direct observations, while those of bharal were quantified through feeding

signs on vegetation.

3. We found that livestock grazing causes a significant reduction in the standing crop of forage. Graminoid availability per unit livestock biomass was three times greater in a moderately grazed rangeland compared with an intensively grazed one.

4. There was considerable diet overlap among the herbivore species. In summer, bharal, yak Bos grunniens, horse Equus caballus, cow Bos indicus, and dzomo (yak-cow hybrids) fed predominantly on graminoids, while donkey E. asinus, sheep Ovis aries, and goat Capra hircus, consumed both graminoids and herbs. The summer diet of bharal was a subset of the diets of three livestock species. In winter, depleted graminoid availability caused bharal, yak and horse to consume relatively more herbs, while the remaining livestock species fed predominantly on graminoids. Diet overlap was less in winter but, in both seasons, all important forage species in the bharal diet were consumed

in substantial amounts by one or more species of livestock.

5. Comparison of the population structures of bharal between two rangelands differing in livestock density by

c. 30% yielded evidence of resource competition. In the intensively grazed rangeland, bharal density was 63% lower, and bharal population showed poorer performance (lower young : adult female ratios).

6.Synthesis and applications High diet overlap between livestock and bharal, together with density-dependent forage limitation, results in resource competition and a decline in bharal density. Under the present conditions of high livestock density and supplemental feeding, restricting livestock numbers and creating livestockfree areas are necessary measures for conserving Trans-Himalayan wild herbivores. Mediating competitive effects on bharal through supplemental feeding is not a feasible option.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 517 Serial 695
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Author Ale, S.B.; Yonzon, P.; Thapa, K.
Title Recovery of snow leopard Uncia uncia in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Miscellaneous
Year 2007 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 41 Issue Pages 89-92
Keywords Nepal; recovery; Sagarmatha Mount Everest National Park; snow leopard; Uncia uncia; surveys; survey; snow; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia-uncia; valley; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; using; information; management; system; research; transects; transect; sign; areas; area; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; 40; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; location; recent; species; grazing; land; Forest; habitat; domestic; wild; ungulates; ungulate; livestock; tourism; development; traditional; land use; land-use; use; wildlife
Abstract From September to November 2004 we conducted surveys of snow leopard Uncia uncia signs in three major valleys in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park in Nepal using the Snow Leopard Information Management System, a standardized survey technique for snow leopard research. We walked 24 transects covering c. 14 km and located 33 sites with 56 snow leopard signs, and 17 signs incidentally in other areas. Snow leopards appear to have re-inhabited the Park, following their disappearance c. 40 years ago, apparently following the recovery of Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus and musk deer Moschus chrysogaster populations. Taken together the locations of all 73 recent snow leopard signs indicate that the species is using predominantly grazing land and shrubland/ open forest at elevations of 3,000-5,000 m, habitat types that are also used by domestic and wild ungulates. Sagarmatha is the homeland of c. 3,500 Buddhist Sherpas with .3,000 livestock. Along with tourism and associated developments in Sagarmatha, traditional land use practices could be used to ensure coexistence of livestock and wildlife, including the recovering snow leopards, and ensure the wellbeing of the Sherpas.
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Notes http://www.snowleopardnetwork.org/bibliography/Ale_2007.pdf Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 884 Serial 58
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Author Mishra, C.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A.
Title Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 40 Issue 1 Pages 1-7
Keywords anthropogenic; area; Arunachal; assessment; awareness; bharal; biodiversity; carnivore; carnivores; community; community-based; conservation; deer; depredation; dhole; endangered; extinct; fauna; goral; grazing; habitat; habitats; High; Himalaya; hunting; incentives; India; indian; Iucn; leopard; livestock; livestock-depredation; livestock depredation; local; mammals; musk; musk-deer; nayaur; panthera; people; peoples; plant; plants; potential; Pseudois; Pseudois-nayaur; pseudois nayaur; range; recent; region; Report; reserve; resource; schools; snow; snow-leopard; snow leopard; species; survey; surveys; threat; threatened; threats; tiger; uncia; Uncia-uncia; Uncia uncia; ungulate; ungulates; valley; wildlife; work; Panthera-tigris; tigris
Abstract The high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh,India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12 carnivores, 10 ungulates and 5 primates) were recorded, of which 13 are categorized as Endangered or Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. One species of primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, is new to science and the Chinese goral Nemorhaedus caudatus is a new addition to the ungulate fauna of the Indian subcontinent. We documented peoples' dependence on natural resources for grazing and extraction of timber and medicinal plants. The region's mammals are threatened by widespread hunting. The snow leopard Uncia uncia and dhole Cuon alpinus are also persecuted in retaliation for livestock depredation. The tiger Panthera tigris, earlier reported from the lower valleys, is now apparently extinct there, and range reductions over the last two decades are reported for bharal Pseudois nayaur and musk deer Moschus sp.. Based on mammal species richness, extent of high altitude habitat, and levels of anthropogenic disturbance, we identified a potential site for the creation of Arunachal's first high altitude wildlife reserve (815 km2). Community-based efforts that provide incentives for conservation-friendly practices could work in this area, and conservation awareness programmes are required, not just amongst the local communities and schools but for politicians, bureaucrats and the army.
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 861 Serial 697
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Author Xu, F.; Ming, M.; Yin, S.-jing; Chundawat R.S.; Marden; Nui, Y.
Title Preliminary Study on the Habitat Selection of Uncia uncia Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 23 Issue Pages 471-473
Keywords study; habitat; Habitat selection; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Chinese; research; large; species; extinction; Felidae; central; mountains; mountain; Xinjiang; Tianshan Mountains; Altay; national; nature; reserve; fieldwork; sign; grazing; status; Test; analysis; primary; factor; topography; valley
Abstract Uncia uncia is one of the rare large species on the brink of extinction in Felidae in the world, and inhabit only the Central Asian mountains. It is said that there are currently only 4500-7300 Uncia uncia surviving. During the period from September 2004 to July 2005, the habitat selection of Uncia uncia was investigated in some mountains in Xinjiang, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains, Beita Mountains, Altay Mounts and Mount Tumor National Nature Reserve. In several months of fieldwork, we got 171 sign samples of Uncia uncia and 123 random samples in total. Five habitat features, i.e., the elevation, topographic features, vegetation type, grazing status and ruggedness, are selected to compare the difference of selectivity of the Uncia uncia habitat selection. The Chi-square goodness-of-fit test and the binomial test are used to check the significance of Uncia uncia habitat selection, and the principal component analysis is used to find the primary factors in in the selection. The result s are as follows : (1) Uncia uncia selected all kinds of the habitat types , especially the elevation , topography , vegetation types and ruggedness ; (2) Ruggedness and the vegetation types are the preliminary factors for the habitat selection. Topography is the secondary factor ; (3) Uncia uncia prefer to inhabit in the rugged habitat s with moderate shrubberies , and they also like to leave signs in valley bottoms rather than hillsides.
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Notes Full text available in ChineseName of periodical: Arid Zone Research Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 871 Serial 1036
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Author Mishra, C.; Rawat, G.S.
Title Livestock grazing and Biodiversity Conservation: Comments on Saberwal Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 12 Issue Pages 25-32
Keywords conservation; Saberwal; biodiversity; livestock; grazing; predator; prey; browse; 1950
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Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 341 Serial 690
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Author Saberwal, V.K.
Title Pastoral Politics:gaddi grazing, degradation and biodiversity conservation in Himachal Pradesh, India Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 10 Issue Pages 741-749
Keywords grazing; livestock; herders; herder; conservation; biodiversity; Himachal-Pradesh; India; browse; himachal pradesh; 1980
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 290 Serial 838
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Author Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.; Bhatnagar, Y.
Title Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 7 Issue Pages 121-128
Keywords conflicts; traditional pastoralism; himalayan ibex; ibex; capra sibirica; trans-himalayan mountains; pin valley national park; spiti region; non-metric multidimensional scaling; snow leopard; wolf; wild dog; Lynx; wild ass; Tibetan argali; Tibetan antelope; Tibetan gazelle; urial; bharal; Pin River; pin valley; Parahio; goat; sheep; Cattle; horses; yaks; donkeys; diet; free-ranging horses; herded horses; grazing; 5290
Abstract There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock species, we studied their resource use patterns over space, habitat and food dimensions in the pastures of Pin Valley National Park in the Spiti region of the Indian Himalaya. Species diet profiles were obtained by direct observations. We assessed the similarity in habitat use and diets of ibex and livestock using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. We estimated the influence of the spatial distribution of livestock on habitat and diet choice of ibex by examining their co-occurrence patterns in cells overlaid on the pastures. The observed co-occurrence of ibex and livestock in cells was compared with null-models generated through Monte Carlo simulations. The results suggest that goats and sheep impose resource limitations on ibex and exclude them from certain pastures. In the remaining suitable habitat, ibex share forage with horses. Ibex remained relatively unaffected by other livestock such as yaks, donkeys and cattle. However, most livestock removed large amounts of forage from the pastures (nearly 250 kg of dry matter/day by certain species), thereby reducing forage availability for ibex. Pertinent conservation issues are discussed in the light of multiple-use of parks and current socio-economic transitions in the region, which call for integrating social and ecological feedback into management planning.
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Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 514 Serial 106
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Author Allen, P.
Title Irbis Enterprises: A Project of the International Snow Leopard Trust Type Miscellaneous
Year 2001 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 6 Issue 1 Pages 1-3
Keywords Islt; irbis-enterprises; irbis; income; herders; incentive; grazing; limitations; poaching; prey; resentment; livestock; wool; cashmere; conservation; tolerance; predation; education; browse; 4320
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Publisher Place of Publication Columbus Zoo and Aquarium Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Full Text at URLJournal Title: The Conservationist Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 420 Serial 66
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Author Ahmad, A.
Title Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Northern Pakistan Type Conference Article
Year 1997 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) Issue Pages 148-154
Keywords conservation; livestock; Wwf; Pakistan; herders; herder; snow-leopard; management; Marco-Polo-sheep; grazing; ibex; park; parks; reserve; reserves; refuge; Khunjerab; hunting; hunter; skin; pelt; fur; coat; protected-area; snow leopard; browse; 2950
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Lahore, Pakistan Editor R.Jackson and A.Ahmad
Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Full text at URLTitle, Monographic: Eighth International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: Islamabad, IndiaDate of Copyright: 1997 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 299 Serial 41
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Author Bhatnagar, Y.V.; Stakrey, R.W.; Jackson, R.
Title A Survey of Depredation and Related Wildlife-Human Conflicts in Hemis National Park, Ladakh (India) Type Miscellaneous
Year 2000 Publication Snow Line Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) xvi Issue Pages 3
Keywords Jammu; Kashmir; Ladakh; conflicts; herders; livestock; predator; prey; grazing; ungulates; economics; Hemis; browse; 4430
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle Editor
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Notes Full Text at URLJournal Title: Snowline Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 431 Serial 136
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