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Author Kyes, R.; Chalise, M.K.
Title Assessing the Status of the Snow Leopard Population in Langtang National Park, Nepal Type Report
Year 2005 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-22
Keywords status; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; population; Langtang; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; trust; program; biodiversity; research; study; Support; Islt; approach; Data; conservation; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; survey; distribution; abundance; prey; prey species; prey-species; species; populations; programs; local; sign; pugmarks; scats; scat; primary; Himalayan; areas; area; Response; Pressure; domestic; domestic livestock; livestock; grazing
Abstract This project is part of an ongoing snow leopard study established in 2003 with support from the ISLT. The study involves a multifaceted approach designed to provide important baseline data on the status of the snow leopard population in Langtang National Park (LNP), Nepal and to generate long-term support and commitment to the conservation of snow leopards in the park. The specific aims include: 1) conducting a population survey of the snow leopards in LNP, focusing on distribution and abundance; 2) assessing the status of prey species populations in the park; and 3) providing educational outreach programs on snow leopard conservation for local school children (K-8) living in the park. During the 2004 study period, snow leopard signs were observed (including pugmarks and scats) although somewhat fewer than in 2003. Similarly, the average herd size of the snow leopards' primary prey species in LNP (the Himalayan thar) was a bit lower than in 2003. There is speculation that the thar populations and the snow leopards may be moving to more remotes areas of the park perhaps in response to increasing pressure from domestic livestock grazing. This possibility is being addressed during the 2005 study period.
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Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program, 2004. University of Washington and Nepal Biodiversity Research Society/Tribhuvan University. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1072 Serial 607
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Author Namgail, T.
Title Interactions between argali and livestock, Gya-Miru Wildlife Sanctuary, Ladakh, India, Final Project Report Type Report
Year 2004 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-39
Keywords Interactions; interaction; argali; livestock; Gya-Miru; wildlife; sanctuary; sanctuaries; Ladakh; India; project; Report; land-use; land use; region; indian; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya; economy; Animal; products; meat; diet; people; wool; goats; goat; International; High; recent; change; population; grazing; Pressure; pasture; impact; 2000; knowledge; primary; Chundawat; wild; area; Support; ungulate; species; fox; nature; domestic; sheep; habitat; habitat use; use; tibetan; Tibetan argali; ovis; Ovis ammon hodgsoni; ammon; reserve; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; program
Abstract Livestock production is the major land-use in Ladakh region of the Indian Trans-Himalaya, and is a crucial sector that drives the region's economy (Anon, 2002). Animal products like meat and milk provide protein to the diet of people, while products like wool and pashmina (soft fibre of goats) find their way to the international market. Such high utility of livestock and the recent socio-economic changes in the region have caused an increase in livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002; Anon. 2002), which, if continue apace, may increase grazing pressure and deteriorate pasture conditions. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess the impact of such escalation in livestock population on the regions wildlife. Although, competitive interaction between wildlife and livestock has been studied elsewhere in the Trans-Himalaya (Bhatnagar et al., 2000; Mishra, 2001; Bagchi et al., 2002), knowledge on this aspect in the Ladakh region is very rudimentary. The rangelands of Ladakh are characterised by low primary productivity (Chundawat & Rawat, 1994), and the wild herbivores are likely to compete with the burgeoning livestock on these impoverished rangelands (Mishra et al., 2002). Thus, given that the area supports a diverse wild ungulate assemblage of eight species (Fox et al., 1991b), and an increasing livestock population (Rawat and Adhikari, 2002), the nature of interaction between wildlife and livestock needs to be assessed. During this project, we primarily evaluated the influence of domestic sheep and goat grazing on the habitat use of Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni in a prospective wildlife reserve in Ladakh.
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Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program, 2003. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1073 Serial 711
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Author Raghavan, B.; Bhatnagar, Y.; Qureshi, Q.
Title Interactions between livestock and Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei); final report Type Report
Year 2003 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-46
Keywords Interactions; interaction; livestock; Ladakh; urial; ovis; endangered; Animal; Iucn; 2000; Cites; indian; wildlife; protection; number; 1960; 70; hunting; meat; fox; Chundawat; population; range; species; recent; humans; Human; Pressure; habitat; areas; area; human activity; activity; activities; agriculture; pastoralism; development; dam; Base; threats; threat; poaching; grazing; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya; Competition; resource; presence; India; project; International; international snow leopard trust; International-Snow-Leopard-Trust; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trust; program
Abstract The Ladakh urial (Ovis vignei vignei) is a highly endangered animal (IUCN Red List 2000) listed in the Appendix 1 of CITES and Schedule 1 of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Its numbers had been reduced to a few hundred individuals in the 1960s and 70s through hunting for trophies and meat (Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). However, with the protection bestowed by the IWPA 1972, and resultant decrease in hunting, the population seems to have shown a marginal increase to about 1000-1500 individuals in its range in Ladakh (Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, IUCN Red List 2000). Although the species had in the past, been able to coexist with the predominantly Buddhist society of Ladakh, the recent increase in the population of both humans and their livestock has placed immense pressures on its habitat (Shackleton 1997, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). This is especially important considering that the Ladakh urial habitat coincides with the areas of maximum human activity in terms of settlements, agriculture, pastoralism and development, in Ladakh (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). Increased developmental activities such as construction of roads, dams, and military bases in these areas have also increased the access to their habitat. This has consequently made the species more vulnerable to the threats of poaching and habitat destruction (Fox et al. 1991, Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2002). Pressure from increased livestock grazing is one of the major threats faced by the species today (Shackleton 1997, Fox et al. 1991, Mallon 1983, IUCN Red List 2000 Chundawat and Qureshi 1999, Raghavan and Bhatnagar 2003). In the impoverished habitat provided by the Trans-Himalayas, there is great competition for the scarce resources between various animal species surviving here (Fox 1996, Mishra 2001). The presence of livestock intensifies this competition and can either force the species out of its niche (competitive exclusion) by displacing it from that area or resource, or lead to partitioning of resources between the species, spatially or temporally, for coexistence (Begon et al. 1986, Gause 1934).
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Notes Project funded by International Snow Leopard Trust Small Grants Program. Wildlife Institute of India. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1075 Serial 802
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Author Richard, C.
Title Sectoral Report in Vol II: Developing Strategies for Agriculture and Related Sectors in Ladakh Type Report
Year 1999 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords livestock; grazing; predator; prey; herders; herder; Ladakh; browse; 1970
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Notes Submitted to the Leh Autonomous Hill Developement Council by IMOCD, Jan 1999 Title, Analytic: Rangelands and Livestock as a Niche Opportunity for Ladakh. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 373 Serial 815
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Author Suryawanshi, K.R.
Title Towards snow leopard prey recovery: understanding the resource use strategies and demographic responses of bharal Pseudois nayaur to livestock grazing and removal; Final project report Type Report
Year 2009 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-43
Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; recovery; resource; use; strategy; demographic; Response; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; livestock; grazing; Report; decline; wild; populations; population; Himalayan; region; Competition; threats; threat; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; study; diet; winter; Test; browse; nutrition; areas; area; young; Female; times; High; Adult; mortality; species; predators; predator; endangered; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya
Abstract Decline of wild prey populations in the Himalayan region, largely due to competition with livestock, has been identified as one of the main threats to the snow leopard Uncia uncia. Studies show that bharal Pseudois nayaur diet is dominated by graminoids during summer, but the proportion of graminoids declines in winter. We explore the causes for the decline of graminoids from bharal winter diet and resulting implications for bharal conservation. We test the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses, (H1) low graminoid availability caused by livestock grazing during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet, and, (H2) bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutrition, to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. Graminoid quality in winter was relatively lower than that of browse, but the difference was not statistically significant. Bharal diet was dominated by graminoids in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to bharal diet declined monotonically with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was three times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. No starvation-related adult mortalities were observed in any of the areas. Composition of bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock free areas is necessary for conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators such as the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program, 2008. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore. Post-graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Wildlife Conservation Society -India program, Bangalore, India. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1077 Serial 952
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Author ud Din, J.
Title Assessing the Status of Snow Leopard in Torkhow Valley, District Chitral, Pakistan: Final Technical Report Type Report
Year 2008 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-16
Keywords status; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; valley; chitral; Pakistan; Report; study; prey; Base; conflict; threats; threat; wildlife; sign; transect; surveys; survey; Slims; Data; number; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Animals; Animal; population; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; area; Case; ungulates; ungulate; Himalayan; himalayan ibex; ibex; rut; using; prey species; prey-species; species; marmot; game; birds; carnivores; carnivore; wolf; wolves; jackal; fox; survival; retaliatory; retaliatory killing; retaliatory-killing; killing; poisoning; poaching; loss; habitat; habitat degradation; habitat-degradation; degradation; grazing; collection; awareness; Gis; map; staff; field; training; conservation; community; distribution; resource; project; network; program
Abstract This study was aimed at assessing the status of Snow leopard, its major prey base, and the extent of human-Snow leopard conflict and major threats to the wildlife in north Chitral (Torkhow valley) Pakistan. Snow leopard occurrence was conformed through sign transect surveys i.e. SLIMS. Based on the data collected the number of Snow leopards in this survey block (1022 Kmý) is estimated to be 2-3 animals. Comparing this estimate with the available data from other parts of the district the population of snow leopard in Chitral district was count to be 36 animals. Livestock depredation reports collected from the area reflect the existence of human-snow leopard conflict and 138 cases were recorded affecting 102 families (in a period of eight years, 2001-2008). Ungulates (Himalayan Ibex) rut season surveys were conducted in coordination with NWFP Wildlife department. A total of 429 animals were counted using direct count (point method) surveys. Other snow leopard prey species recorded include marmot, hare, and game birds. Signs of other carnivores i.e. wolf, jackal, and fox were also noticed. Major threats to the survival of wildlife especially snow leopard reckoned include retaliatory killing (Shooting, Poisoning), poaching, loss of natural prey, habitat degradation (over grazing, fodder and fuel wood collection), lack of awareness, and over population. GIS map of the study area was developed highlighting the area searched for Snow leopard and its prey species. Capacity of the Wildlife Department staff was built in conducting SLIMS and ungulate surveys through class room and on field training. Awareness regarding the importance of wildlife conservation was highlighted to the students, teachers and general community through lectures and distribution of resource materials developed by WWF-Pakistan.
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1065 Serial 978
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Author Ahmad, A.
Title Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Northern Pakistan Type Conference Article
Year 1997 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 148-154
Keywords conservation; livestock; Wwf; Pakistan; herders; herder; snow-leopard; management; Marco-Polo-sheep; grazing; ibex; park; parks; reserve; reserves; refuge; Khunjerab; hunting; hunter; skin; pelt; fur; coat; protected-area; snow leopard; browse; 2950
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Lahore, Pakistan Editor R.Jackson and A.Ahmad
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Notes Full text at URLTitle, Monographic: Eighth International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: Islamabad, IndiaDate of Copyright: 1997 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 299 Serial 41
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Author Allen, P.
Title Irbis Enterprises: A Project of the International Snow Leopard Trust Type Miscellaneous
Year 2001 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 1-3
Keywords Islt; irbis-enterprises; irbis; income; herders; incentive; grazing; limitations; poaching; prey; resentment; livestock; wool; cashmere; conservation; tolerance; predation; education; browse; 4320
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Publisher Place of Publication Columbus Zoo and Aquarium Editor
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Notes Full Text at URLJournal Title: The Conservationist Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 420 Serial 66
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Author Harris, R.B.
Title A note on snow leopards and local people in Nangqian County, Southern Qinghai Province Type Conference Article
Year 1994 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 79-84
Keywords China; Qinghai; attitude; local-peoples; herders; livestock; predator; prey; cub; capture; poaching; blue-sheep; Release; grazing; yaks; goats; horses; domestic; ungulates; hunting; bones; fur; pelts; coats; conservation; trapping; protected-area; blue; sheep; browse; local; protected; area; peoples; 3250
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Usa Editor J.L.Fox; Jizeng, D.
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Notes Full Text at URLTitle, Monographic: Seventh International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: ChinaDate of Copyright: 1994 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 223 Serial 371
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Author Kreuzberg, E.; Esipov, A.; Bykova, E.; Vashetko, E.
Title Number, Distribution and Status of Habitats for Snow Leopard in Gissar Nature Reserve and Neighboring Areas Type Miscellaneous
Year 2000 Publication (up) Abbreviated Journal
Volume xvi Issue Pages 4
Keywords Uzbekistan; Gissar; habitat; distribution; status; field-study; research; surveys; poaching; hunting; grazing; livestock; browse; 4440
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle, Wa Editor
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Notes Full text at URLJournal Title: Snow Line Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 432 Serial 595
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