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Author (up) Schaller, G.
Title Surveys of Mountain Wildlife in China, Report # 6 Type Miscellaneous
Year 1987 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 10
Keywords Xinjiang; Tian-Shan; Tomur-Feng; tibetan-plateau; Altun; surveys; methods; hunting; livestock; grazing; browse; 4200
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Notes Full Text Available at URL Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 408 Serial 854
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Author (up) Sharma, R. K., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Mishra, C.
Title Does livestock benefit or harm snow leopards? Type Journal Article
Year 201 Publication Biological Conservatio Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue 190 Pages 8-13
Keywords Panthera uncia, Trans-Himalaya, Pastoralism, Large carnivores, Livestock grazing, Co-existence
Abstract Large carnivores commonly prey on livestock when their ranges overlap. Pastoralism is the dominant land use type across the distributional range of the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia. Snow leop- ards are often killed in retaliation against livestock depredation. Whether livestock, by forming an alter- native prey, could potentially benefit snow leopards, or, whether livestock use of an area is detrimental to snow leopards is poorly understood. We examined snow leopard habitat use in a multiple use landscape that was comprised of sites varying in livestock abundance, wild prey abundance and human population size. We photographically sampled ten sites (average size 70 sq. km) using ten camera traps in each site, deployed for a period of 60 days. Snow leopard habitat use was computed as a Relative Use Index based on the total independent photographic captures and the number of snow leopard individuals captured at each site. We quantified livestock abundance, wild prey abundance, human population size and terrain ruggedness in each of the sites. Key variables influencing snow leopard habitat use were identified using Information Theory based model selection approach. Snow leopard habitat use was best explained by wild prey density, and showed a positive linear relationship with the abundance of wild ungulates. We found a hump-shaped relationship between snow leopard habitat use and livestock stocking density, with an initial increase in habitat use followed by a decline beyond a threshold of livestock density. Our results suggest that in the absence of direct persecution of snow leopards, livestock grazing and snow leopard habitat use are potentially compatible up to a certain threshold of livestock density, beyond which habitat use declines, presumably due to depressed wild ungulate abundance and associated anthropogenic disturbance.
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Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1426
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Author (up) Suryawanshi, K.R.
Title Towards snow leopard prey recovery: understanding the resource use strategies and demographic responses of bharal Pseudois nayaur to livestock grazing and removal; Final project report Type Report
Year 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-43
Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; recovery; resource; use; strategy; demographic; Response; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; livestock; grazing; Report; decline; wild; populations; population; Himalayan; region; Competition; threats; threat; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; study; diet; winter; Test; browse; nutrition; areas; area; young; Female; times; High; Adult; mortality; species; predators; predator; endangered; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya
Abstract Decline of wild prey populations in the Himalayan region, largely due to competition with livestock, has been identified as one of the main threats to the snow leopard Uncia uncia. Studies show that bharal Pseudois nayaur diet is dominated by graminoids during summer, but the proportion of graminoids declines in winter. We explore the causes for the decline of graminoids from bharal winter diet and resulting implications for bharal conservation. We test the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses, (H1) low graminoid availability caused by livestock grazing during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet, and, (H2) bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutrition, to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. Graminoid quality in winter was relatively lower than that of browse, but the difference was not statistically significant. Bharal diet was dominated by graminoids in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to bharal diet declined monotonically with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was three times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. No starvation-related adult mortalities were observed in any of the areas. Composition of bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock free areas is necessary for conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators such as the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program, 2008. Nature Conservation Foundation, Mysore. Post-graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Wildlife Conservation Society -India program, Bangalore, India. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1077 Serial 952
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Author (up) Suryawanshi, K.R.; Bhatnagar, Y.; Mishra, C.
Title Why should a grazer browse? Livestock impact on winter resource use by bharal Pseudois nayaur Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-10
Keywords browse; livestock; impact; winter; resource; use; bharal; Pseudois; pseudois nayaur; Pseudois-nayaur; nayaur; diet; variation; diets; conservation; Media; study; decline; areas; area; grazing; Pressure; plants; plant; sign; feeding; location; population; structure; populations; using; young; Female; times; High; Competition; species; predators; predator; endangered; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; trans-himalaya; transhimalaya
Abstract Many mammalian herbivores show a temporal diet variation between graminoid-dominated and browse dominated diets. We determined the causes of such a diet shift and its implications for conservation of a medium sized ungulate-the bharal Pseudois nayaur. Past studies show that the bharal diet is dominated by graminoids (>80%) during summer, but the contribution of graminoids declines to about 50% in winter. We tested the predictions generated by two alternative hypotheses explaining the decline: low graminoid availability during winter causes bharal to include browse in their diet; bharal include browse, with relatively higher nutritional quality, in their diet to compensate for the poor quality of graminoids during winter. We measured winter graminoid availability in areas with no livestock grazing, areas with relatively moderate livestock grazing, and those with intense livestock grazing pressures. The chemical composition of plants contributing to the bharal diet was analysed. The bharal diet was quantiWed through signs of feeding on vegetation at feeding locations. Population structures of bharal populations were recorded using a total count method. Graminoid availability was highest in areas without livestock grazing, followed by areas with moderate and intense livestock grazing. The bharal diet was dominated by graminoids (73%) in areas with highest graminoid availability. Graminoid contribution to the bharal diet declined monotonically (50, 36%) with a decline in graminoid availability. Bharal young to female ratio was 3 times higher in areas with high graminoid availability than areas with low graminoid availability. The composition of the bharal winter diet was governed predominantly by the availability of graminoids in the rangelands. Our results suggest that bharal include more browse in their diet during winter due to competition from livestock for graminoids. Since livestock grazing reduces graminoid availability, creation of livestock-free areas is necessary for the conservation of grazing species such as the bharal and its predators including the endangered snow leopard in the Trans-Himalaya.
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Notes This study was made possible by a grant from the Snow Leopard Network. Additional support was given by the Wildlife Conservation Society-India Program and Nature Conservation Foundation, the Whitley Fund for Nature, the Ford Foundation, and the Nadathur Conservation Trust. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1062 Serial 951
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Author (up) ud Din, J.
Title Assessing the Status of Snow Leopard in Torkhow Valley, District Chitral, Pakistan: Final Technical Report Type Report
Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-16
Keywords status; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; valley; chitral; Pakistan; Report; study; prey; Base; conflict; threats; threat; wildlife; sign; transect; surveys; survey; Slims; Data; number; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; Animals; Animal; population; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; area; Case; ungulates; ungulate; Himalayan; himalayan ibex; ibex; rut; using; prey species; prey-species; species; marmot; game; birds; carnivores; carnivore; wolf; wolves; jackal; fox; survival; retaliatory; retaliatory killing; retaliatory-killing; killing; poisoning; poaching; loss; habitat; habitat degradation; habitat-degradation; degradation; grazing; collection; awareness; Gis; map; staff; field; training; conservation; community; distribution; resource; project; network; program
Abstract This study was aimed at assessing the status of Snow leopard, its major prey base, and the extent of human-Snow leopard conflict and major threats to the wildlife in north Chitral (Torkhow valley) Pakistan. Snow leopard occurrence was conformed through sign transect surveys i.e. SLIMS. Based on the data collected the number of Snow leopards in this survey block (1022 Kmý) is estimated to be 2-3 animals. Comparing this estimate with the available data from other parts of the district the population of snow leopard in Chitral district was count to be 36 animals. Livestock depredation reports collected from the area reflect the existence of human-snow leopard conflict and 138 cases were recorded affecting 102 families (in a period of eight years, 2001-2008). Ungulates (Himalayan Ibex) rut season surveys were conducted in coordination with NWFP Wildlife department. A total of 429 animals were counted using direct count (point method) surveys. Other snow leopard prey species recorded include marmot, hare, and game birds. Signs of other carnivores i.e. wolf, jackal, and fox were also noticed. Major threats to the survival of wildlife especially snow leopard reckoned include retaliatory killing (Shooting, Poisoning), poaching, loss of natural prey, habitat degradation (over grazing, fodder and fuel wood collection), lack of awareness, and over population. GIS map of the study area was developed highlighting the area searched for Snow leopard and its prey species. Capacity of the Wildlife Department staff was built in conducting SLIMS and ungulate surveys through class room and on field training. Awareness regarding the importance of wildlife conservation was highlighted to the students, teachers and general community through lectures and distribution of resource materials developed by WWF-Pakistan.
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1065 Serial 978
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Author (up) Xu, F.; Ming, M.; Yin, S.-jing; Chundawat R.S.; Marden; Nui, Y.
Title Preliminary Study on the Habitat Selection of Uncia uncia Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume 23 Issue Pages 471-473
Keywords study; habitat; Habitat selection; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Chinese; research; large; species; extinction; Felidae; central; mountains; mountain; Xinjiang; Tianshan Mountains; Altay; national; nature; reserve; fieldwork; sign; grazing; status; Test; analysis; primary; factor; topography; valley
Abstract Uncia uncia is one of the rare large species on the brink of extinction in Felidae in the world, and inhabit only the Central Asian mountains. It is said that there are currently only 4500-7300 Uncia uncia surviving. During the period from September 2004 to July 2005, the habitat selection of Uncia uncia was investigated in some mountains in Xinjiang, including the eastern Tianshan Mountains, Beita Mountains, Altay Mounts and Mount Tumor National Nature Reserve. In several months of fieldwork, we got 171 sign samples of Uncia uncia and 123 random samples in total. Five habitat features, i.e., the elevation, topographic features, vegetation type, grazing status and ruggedness, are selected to compare the difference of selectivity of the Uncia uncia habitat selection. The Chi-square goodness-of-fit test and the binomial test are used to check the significance of Uncia uncia habitat selection, and the principal component analysis is used to find the primary factors in in the selection. The result s are as follows : (1) Uncia uncia selected all kinds of the habitat types , especially the elevation , topography , vegetation types and ruggedness ; (2) Ruggedness and the vegetation types are the preliminary factors for the habitat selection. Topography is the secondary factor ; (3) Uncia uncia prefer to inhabit in the rugged habitat s with moderate shrubberies , and they also like to leave signs in valley bottoms rather than hillsides.
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Notes Full text available in ChineseName of periodical: Arid Zone Research Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 871 Serial 1036
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Author (up) Xu, F.; Ming, M.; Yin, S.-jing; Munkhtsog, B.
Title Autumn Habitat Selection by Snow Leopard (Uncia uncia) in Beita Mountain, Xinjiang, China Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication Zoological Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 221-224
Keywords habitat; Habitat selection; selection; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; mountain; Xinjiang; China; Chinese; Altay; mountain system; system; 30; transects; transect; surveys; survey; study; area; analysis; primary; factor; 200; 600; Base; valley; Forest; region; south; grazing; status; topography
Abstract Habitat selection of Snow Leopard ( Unica unica) in Beita Mountain of the Altay Mountain system in northeast Xinjiang was conducted from September to October 2004. Six habitat features of 59 sites used by Snow Leopard and 30 random plots were measured by locating 15 transects surveys in the study area . Vanderploge and Scaviaps selectivity index was used to assess Snow Leopardps selection for the different habitat parameters. Principal Component Analysis was used as the primary factor . The results indicated that Snow Leopard preferred the altitude between 2000 – 2 200 m and avoided 2 600 – 3 000 m ; selected cliff base , ridgeline and avoided hillside and valley bottom ; utilized the shrub and rejected the forest ; selected the nongrazing area and avoided the slightly broken region ; preferred north orientation and rejected the south orientation. The results show that grazing status , vegetation type , topography and the ruggedness are the primary factors for the habitat selection of Snow Leopard.
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Notes Full text available in Chinese Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 872 Serial 1039
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