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Author International Snow Leopard Trust
Title (up) Snow Leopard News Spring 2000 Type Miscellaneous
Year 2000 Publication Snow Leopard News Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Rutherford; Freeman; Morse; Jackson; Hillard; Natural-Partnerships-Program; Pakistan; Islt; Slims; training; Chitrol-Gol; parks; preserves; reserves; protected-areas; surveys; Hemis; Conflict-Resolution-Workshop; conflict; herders; leh; Jammu; Kashmir; Ladakh; corrals; predator; prey; livestock; depradation; human-wildlife-conflict; Uzbekistan; Gissar; Peace-Corps; Mongolia; Macne; fiction; populations; browse; 4390
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle, Wa Editor
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Notes Full Text at URLTable of Contents1.Transitions at the Trust2.Message From ISLT Founder Helen Freeman and President Charles Morse3.Jakson and Hillard to Leave ISLT for New Pursuits4. News and Notes5. ISLT's Natural Partnerships Program6.Thoughts from a Snow Leopard7. Snow Leopards, Local People,and Livestock losses: Solutions through Paticipation8.U.S. Peace Corps and ISLT Team Up in Mongolia Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 427 Serial 930
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Author Wegge, P., Shrestha, R., Flagstad, O.
Title (up) Snow leopard Panthera uncia predation on livestock and wild prey in a mountain valley in northern Nepal: implications for conservation management Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Wildlife Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 18 Issue 10.2981/11-049 Pages 131-141
Keywords bharal, blue sheep, diet, genetic sampling, naur, Panthera uncia, predation, Pseudois nayaur, scat analysis, snow leopard, wildlife conflict
Abstract The globally endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia is sparsely distributed throughout the rugged mountains in Asia.

Its habit of preying on livestock poses a main challenge to management. In the remote Phu valley in northern Nepal, we

obtained reliable information on livestock losses and estimated predator abundance and diet composition from DNA

analysis and prey remains in scats. The annual diet consisted of 42%livestock. Among the wild prey, bharal (blue sheep/

naur) Pseudois nayaur was by far the most common species (92%). Two independent abundance estimates suggested that

there were six snow leopards in the valley during the course of our study. On average, each snow leopard killed about one

livestock individual and two bharal permonth. Predation loss of livestock estimated fromprey remains in scats was 3.9%,

which was in concordance with village records (4.0%). From a total count of bharal, the only large natural prey in the area

and occurring at a density of 8.4 animals/km2 or about half the density of livestock, snow leopards were estimated to

harvest 15.1% of the population annually. This predation rate approaches the natural, inherent recruitment rate of this

species; in Phu the proportion of kids was estimated at 18.4%. High livestock losses have created a hostile attitude against

the snow leopard and mitigation measures are needed. Among innovative management schemes now being implemented

throughout the species’ range, compensation and insurance programmes coupled with other incentive measures are

encouraged, rather than measures to reduce the snow leopard’s access to livestock. In areas like the Phu valley, where the

natural prey base consists mainly of one ungulate species that is already heavily preyed upon, the latter approach, if

implemented, will lead to increased predation on this prey, which over time may suppress numbers of both prey and

predator.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1386
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Author Johansson, O., McCarthy, T., Samelius, G., Andren, H., Tumursukh, L., Mishra, C.
Title (up) Snow leopard predation in a livestock dominated landscape in Mongolia Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 184 Issue Pages 251-258
Keywords Gobi desert, GPS collar, Kill rate, Panthera uncial, Prey choice, Wildlife conflict
Abstract Livestock predation is an important cause of endangerment of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) across

its range. Yet, detailed information on individual and spatio-temporal variation in predation patterns of

snow leopards and their kill rates of livestock and wild ungulates are lacking.

We collared 19 snow leopards in the Tost Mountains, Mongolia, and searched clusters of GPS positions

to identify prey remains and estimate kill rate and prey choice.

Snow leopards killed, on average, one ungulate every 8 days, which included more wild prey (73%) than

livestock (27%), despite livestock abundance being at least one order of magnitude higher. Predation on

herded livestock occurred mainly on stragglers and in rugged areas where animals are out of sight of herders.

The two wild ungulates, ibex (Capra ibex) and argali (Ovis ammon), were killed in proportion to their

relative abundance. Predation patterns changed with spatial (wild ungulates) and seasonal (livestock)

changes in prey abundance. Adult male snow leopards killed larger prey and 2–6 times more livestock

compared to females and young males. Kill rates were considerably higher than previous scat-based estimates, and kill rates of females were higher than kill rates of males. We suggest that (i) snow leopards

prey largely on wild ungulates and kill livestock opportunistically, (ii) retaliatory killing by livestock herders

is likely to cause greater mortality of adult male snow leopards compared to females and young

males, and (iii) total off-take of prey by a snow leopard population is likely to be much higher than previous

estimates suggest.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1420
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Author Maheshwari, A. , Sathyakumar, S.
Title (up) Snow leopard stewardship in mitigating human-wildlife conflict in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Human Dimensions of Wildlife Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-5
Keywords Snow leopard; human-wildlife conflict; ecotourism; livelihood; India
Abstract Among large predators, snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and co-predators (e.g., wolves

Canis lupus, lynx Lynx lynx) often cause economic losses, engendering animosity from

local communities in the mountain ecosystem across south and central Asia (Din et al.,

2017; Jackson & Lama, 2016; Maheshwari, Takpa, Kujur, & Shawl, 2010; Schaller, 2012).

These economic losses range from around US $50 to nearly $300 per household,

a significant sum given per capita annual incomes of $250 – $400 (Jackson & Wangchuk,

2004; Mishra, 1997). Recent efforts such as improved livestock husbandry practices

(predator-proof livestock corrals – closed night shelters with covered roof with wiremesh

and a closely fitting iron or wooden door that can be securely locked at night) and

community-based ecotourism (e.g., home stays, guides, porters, pack animals, campsites)

are providing alternative livelihood opportunities and mitigating large carnivores – human

conflict in the snow leopard habitats (Hanson, Schutgens, & Baral, 2018; Jackson, 2015;

Jackson & Lama, 2016; Vannelli, Hampton, Namgail, & Black, 2019). Snow leopard-based

ecotourism provides an opportunity to secure livelihoods and reduce poverty of the

communities living in ecotourism sites across Ladakh (Chandola, 2012; Jackson, 2015).

To understand the role of snow leopard-based ecotourism in uplifting the financial profile

of local communities, mitigating large carnivore – human conflict and eventually changing

attitudes towards large carnivores in Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India, we compared

the estimated financial gains of a snow leopard-based ecotourism to stated livestock

predation losses by snow leopards and wolves.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1484
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Author McCarthy, T.
Title (up) Snow Leopards in Mongolia Type Miscellaneous
Year 2000 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Mongolia; distribution; status; irbis; irbis-enterprises; herders; livestock; economy; conservation; gobi; habitat; Disease; depredation; conflict; predator; prey; hunting; poaching; skins; pelts; coats; furs; bones; trade; Macne; habitat-fragmentation; browse; enterprises; fragmentation; habitat fragmentation; 4090
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Notes Full Text at URL Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 383 Serial 662
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Author Jackson, R.; Zongyi, W.; Xuedong, L.; Yun, C.
Title (up) Snow Leopards in the Qomolangma Nature Preserve of Tibet Autonomous Region Type Conference Article
Year 1994 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 85-95
Keywords Qomolangma; protected-area; parks; preserves; refuge; Nepal; Tibet; China; field-study; blue-sheep; scrapes; sprays; scat; feces; pug-marks; sign; transects; interviews; herders; livestock; predation; predator; traps; trapping; habitat; status; distribution; threats; hunting; pelts; skins; fur; coats; poaching; bones; medicine; Cites; conflict; trade; conservation; management; protected area; protected; area; areas; protected areas; field study; field; study; pug marks; blue; sheep; browse; pug; marks; 3490
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Usa Editor J.L.Fox; D.Jizeng
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Full Text at URLTitle, Monographic: Seventh International Snow Leopard SymposiumPlace of Meeting: ChinaDate of Copyright: 1994 Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 231 Serial 452
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Author Xiao, L., Hua, F., Knops, J. M. H., Zhao, X., Mishra, C., Lovari, S., Alexander, J. S., Weckworth, B., Lu, Z.
Title (up) Spatial separation of prey from livestock facilitates coexistence of a specialized large carnivore with human land use. Type Journal Article
Year 2022 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1 - 10
Keywords large carnivore; coexistence; prey; niche separation; land use; livestock; human– wildlife conflict; snow leopard.
Abstract There is an increasing emphasis in conservation strategies for large carnivores on facilitating their coexistence with humans. Justification for coexistence strategies should be based on a quantitative assessment of currently remaining large carnivores in human-dominated landscapes. An essential part of a carnivore’s coexistence strategy has to rely on its prey. In this research, we studied snow leopards Panthera uncia whose habitat mainly comprises human-dominated, unprotected areas, to understand how a large carnivore and its primary prey, the bharal Pseudois nayaur, could coexist with human land use activities in a large proportion of its range. Using a combination of livestock census, camera trapping and wildlife surveys, across a broad gradient of livestock grazing intensity in a 363 000 km2 landscape on the Tibetan Plateau, we found no evidence of livestock grazing impacts on snow leopard habitat use, bharal density and spatial distribution, even though livestock density was 13 times higher than bharal density. Bharal were found to prefer utilizing more rugged habitats at higher elevations with lower grass forage conditions, whereas livestock dominated in flat valleys at lower elevations with higher productivity, especially during the resource-scarce season. These findings suggest that the spatial niche separation between bharal and livestock, together with snow leopards’ specialized bharal diet, minimized conflicts and allowed snow leopards and bharal to coexist in landscapes dominated by livestock grazing. In recent years, reduced hunting and nomadic herder’s lifestyle changes towards permanent residence may have further reinforced this spatial separation. Our results indicated that, for developing conservation strategies for large carnivores, the niche of their prey in relation to human land-use is a key variable that needs to be evaluated.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1678
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Author Jackson, R.
Title (up) SSC Plan for Snow Leopard Type Miscellaneous
Year 1992 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords physiology; status; distribution; description; behavior; reproduction; mating; breeding; vocalization; gestation; biology; habitat; scrapes; sprays; scat; feces; longevity; homerange; home-range; prey; diet; Cites; Iunc; parks; preserves; reserves; refuge; protected-areas; movements; activity; livestock; herders; depredation; conflict; trade; poaching; hunting; research; captivity; management; zoos; Slims; surveys; transects; browse; home range; home; range; protected area; protected areas; protected; area; areas; 3920; plan; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard
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Notes Full Text at URL DRAFT – Revised September 22, 1992 by Rodney Jackson Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 201 Serial 450
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Author Xu, A.; Jiang, Z.; Li, C.; Guo, J.; Da, S.; Cui, Q.; Yu, S.; Wu, G.
Title (up) Status and conservation of the snow leopard Panthera uncia in the Gouli Region, Kunlun Mountains, China Type Miscellaneous
Year 2008 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume 42 Issue Pages 460-463
Keywords Camera trapping,China,human-wildlife conflict,Kunlun Mountains,Panthera uncia,snow leopard,trace.
Abstract The elusive snow leopard Panthera unica is a rare and little studied species in China. Over 1 March-15 May 2006 we conducted a survey for the snow leopard in the Gouli Region, East Burhanbuda Mountain, Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province, China, in an area of c. 300 km2 at altitudes of 4,000-4,700 m. We surveyed 29 linear transects with a total length of c. 440 km, and located a total of 72 traces (pug marks, scrapes and urine marks) of snow leopard along four of the transects. We obtained eight photographs of snow leopard from four of six camera traps. We also recorded 1,369 blue sheep, 156 Tibetan gazelles, 47 argali, 37 red deer and one male white-lipped deer. We evaluated human attitudes towards snow leopard by interviewing the heads of 27 of the 30 Tibetan households living in the study area. These local people did not consider that snow leopard is the main predator of their livestock, and thus there is little retaliatory killing. Prospects for the conservation of snow leopard in this area therefore appear to be good. We analysed the potential threats to the species and propose the establishment of a protected area for managing snow leopard and the fragile alpine ecosystem of this region. (c) 2008 Fauna & Flora International.
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Call Number SLN @ rana @ 900 Serial 1032
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Author Seidensticker, J.; Lumpkin, S.
Title (up) The adaptable leopard; unfortunately it's no match for modern man Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Wildlife Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 99 Issue 3 Pages 52
Keywords predator; prey; poaching; hunting; behavior; feeding; conflict; habitat; browse; 1130
Abstract Abstract: Leopards' adaptability has become the species' vulnerability. The animals do not hesitate to eat rotting flesh and will come back repeatedly to their meal, if disturbed. People have taken advantage of this by lacing carcasses with poison. Leopards are moderate in size compared to other cats, are stealthy and can live in areas as diverse as rain forests and deserts.
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Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 291 Serial 876
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