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Author (up) Samelius, G., Suryawanshi, K., Frank, J., Agvaantseren, B., Baasandamba, E., Mijiddorj, T., Johansson, O., Tumursukh, L., Mishra, C.
Title Keeping predators out: testing fences to reduce livestock depredation at night-time corrals Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Oryx Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-7
Keywords Canis lupus, carnivore conservation, coexistence, conflict mitigation, conservation conflict, livestock depreda- tion, Panthera uncia, preventative measure
Abstract Livestock depredation by large carnivores is a global conservation challenge, and mitigation measures to reduce livestock losses are crucial for the coexistence of large carnivores and people. Various measures are employed to reduce livestock depredation but their effectiveness has rarely been tested. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of tall fences to reduce livestock losses to snow leopards Panthera uncia and wolves Canis lupus at night-time corrals at the winter camps of livestock herders in the Tost Mountains in southern Mongolia. Self-reported livestock losses at the fenced corrals were reduced from a mean loss of 3.9 goats and sheep per family and winter prior to the study to zero losses in the two winters of the study. In contrast, self-reported livestock losses in winter pastures, and during the rest of the year, when herders used different camps, remained high, which indicates that livestock losses were reduced because of the fences, not because of temporal variation in predation pressure. Herder attitudes towards snow leopards were positive and remained positive during the study, whereas attitudes towards wolves, which attacked livestock also in summer when herders moved out on the steppes, were negative and worsened during the study. This study showed that tall fences can be very effective at reducing night-time losses at corrals and we conclude that fences can be an important tool for snow leopard conservation and for facilitating the coexistence of snow leopards and people.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1492
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Author (up) Sangay, T.; Vernes, K.
Title Human-wildlife conflict in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Patterns of livestock predation by large mammalian carnivores Type Miscellaneous
Year 2008 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 141 Issue Pages 1272-1282
Keywords bear; Bhutan; compensation; conflict; Himalayas; leopard; livestock; predation; snow leopard; tiger
Abstract We examined predation activity throughout Bhutan by tiger (Panthera tigris), common leopard (Panthera pardus), snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus) on a variety of livestock types using data gathered over the first two years (2003-2005) of a compensation scheme for livestock losses. One thousand three hundred and seventy five kills were documented, with leopards killing significantly more livestock (70% of all kills),

than tigers (19%), bears (8%) and snow leopards (2%). About 50% of livestock killing were of cattle, and about 33% were of horses, with tigers, leopards and snow leopards killing a significantly greater proportion of horses than predicted from availability. Examination of cattle kills showed that leopards killed a significantly greater proportion of smaller prey (e.g., calves), whereas tigers killed a significantly greater proportion of larger prey (e.g., bulls). Overall, livestock predation was greatest in summer and autumn which corresponded with a peak in cropping agriculture; livestock are turned out to pasture and forest during the cropping season, and subsequently, are less well guarded than at other times. Across Bhutan, high horse density and low cattle and yak density were associated with high rates of livestock attack, but no relationship was found with forest cover or human population density. Several northern districts were identified as 'predation hotspots', where proportions of livestock lost to predation were considerable, and the ratio of reported kills to relative abundance of livestock was high. Implications of our findings for mitigating livestock losses and for conserving large carnivores in Bhutan are discussed.
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 903 Serial 842
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Author (up) Seidensticker, J.; Lumpkin, S.
Title The adaptable leopard; unfortunately it's no match for modern man Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Wildlife Conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 99 Issue 3 Pages 52
Keywords predator; prey; poaching; hunting; behavior; feeding; conflict; habitat; browse; 1130
Abstract Abstract: Leopards' adaptability has become the species' vulnerability. The animals do not hesitate to eat rotting flesh and will come back repeatedly to their meal, if disturbed. People have taken advantage of this by lacing carcasses with poison. Leopards are moderate in size compared to other cats, are stealthy and can live in areas as diverse as rain forests and deserts.
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Notes Document Type: English Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 291 Serial 876
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Author (up) Shrestha, B.
Title Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Report
Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-35
Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; abundance; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; resource; predators; predator; ecological; impact; region; community; structure; number; research; population; status; density; densities; wild; prey species; prey-species; species; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; game; birds; diet; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; awareness; co-existence; ungulates; ungulate; Human; using; areas; area; monitoring; transect; Hair; identification; scat; attack; patterns; sighting; 1760; populations; birth; Male; Female; young; domestic; domestic livestock; 120; scats; yak; Dog; pika; wildlife; Seasons; winter; horse; study; cover; land; predation; Pressure; development; strategy; threatened; threatened species; threatened-species; conflicts; conflict; people; control; husbandry; compensation; reintroduction; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; free ranging
Abstract Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.
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Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Forum of Natural Resource Managers, Nepal. Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1076 Serial 887
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Author (up) Spearing, A.
Title The Snow Leopard in Zanskar, Jammu & Kashmir, NW India Type Conference Article
Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords snow; leopard; India; conflict; Human; livestock; herders; attitudes; opinions; population; trends; poaching; killing; illegal; conservation; programs; rural; co-existence; 5090
Abstract The paper summarises the alleged conflict between livestock herders and wild predators in the trans-Himalayan region of Zanskar, NW India. The snow leopard (Uncia uncia) is seriously threatened by this conflict, with at least thirteen killed in the last seven years in 3 of the study villages alone. Results of snow leopard sign surveys are described, revealing significant increases since the last survey (1986) consistent with alleged increases in livestock depredation. Attitudes toward wildlife and opinions on population trends are assessed. Depredation hotspots are identified and the cost of livestock predation is

discussed in terms of recent developments and social changes in the Zanskar region.

Illegal hunting and retaliatory killing are described, and essential programs and

conservation measures are suggested. Even at this early stage, there appears scope for raising rural incomes and lifting the burden of co-existence with snow leopard and other unique mountain fauna.
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Publisher Islt Place of Publication Islt Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Title, Monographic: Proceedings of the Snow Leopard Survival SummitPlace of Meeting: Seattle,WA Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 495 Serial 919
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Author (up) Suryawanshi, K. R., Redpath, S., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Ramakrishnan, U., Chaturvedi, V., Smout, S. C., Mishra, C.
Title Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-11
Keywords apparent competition, apparent facilitation, conservation conflicts, indirect interactions, predator� prey interactions, snow leopard
Abstract An increasing proportion of the world�s poor is rearing

livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing.

Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory

killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern.

A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and

for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey

populations based on the assumption that the carnivores

will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation,

however, could either reduce or intensify with increases

in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in

carnivore abundance. We show that the extent of livestock

predation by the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia

intensifies with increases in the density of wild ungulate

prey, and subsequently stabilizes. We found that snow leopard

density, estimated at seven sites, was a positive linear

function of the density of wild ungulates�the preferred

prey�and showed no discernible relationship with livestock

density. We also found that modelled livestock predation

increased with livestock density. Our results suggest that

snow leopard conservation would benefit from an increase

in wild ungulates, but that would intensify the problem of

livestock predation for pastoralists. The potential benefits of

increased wild prey abundance in reducing livestock predation

can be overwhelmed by a resultant increase in snow leopard

populations. Snow leopard conservation efforts aimed at

facilitating increases in wild prey must be accompanied by greater assistance for better livestock

protection and offsetting the economic damage caused by carnivores.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1457
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Author (up) Suryawanshi, K. R., Bhatia, S., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Redpath, S., Mishra, C
Title Multiscale Factors Affecting Human Attitudes toward Snow Leopards and Wolves Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Conservation biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 00 Issue Pages 1-10
Keywords Canis lupus, carnivore, human–wildlife conflicts, Panthera uncia, wildlife acceptance
Abstract The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between

them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local

residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores,

but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined.We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus).

We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in

the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured

variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors.We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at appropriate scales. Our results reiterate the need for conflict management programs to be multipronged.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1417
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Author (up) Suryawanshi, K. R., Redpath, S. M., Bhatnagar, Y. V., Ramakrishnan, U., Chaturvedi, V., Smout, S. C., Mishra, C.
Title Impact of wild prey availability on livestock predation by snow leopards Type Journal Article
Year Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-11
Keywords apparent competition, apparent facilitation, conservation conflicts, indirect interactions, predator� prey interactions, snow leopard
Abstract An increasing proportion of the world�s poor is rearing livestock today, and the global livestock population is growing. Livestock predation by large carnivores and their retaliatory

killing is becoming an economic and conservation concern. A common recommendation for carnivore conservation and for reducing predation on livestock is to increase wild prey populations based on the assumption that the carnivores will consume this alternative food. Livestock predation, however, could either reduce or intensify with increases in wild prey depending on prey choice and trends in carnivore abundance. We show that the extent of livestock predation by the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia

intensifies with increases in the density of wild ungulate prey, and subsequently stabilizes. We found that snow leopard density, estimated at seven sites, was a positive linear function of the density of wild ungulates�the preferred prey�and showed no discernible relationship with livestock density. We also found that modelled livestock predation increased with livestock density. Our results suggest that snow leopard conservation would benefit from an increase in wild ungulates, but that would intensify the problem of livestock predation for pastoralists. The potential benefits of increased wild prey abundance in reducing livestock predation

can be overwhelmed by a resultant increase in snow leopard populations. Snow leopard conservation efforts aimed atfacilitating increases in wild prey must be accompanied by greater assistance for better livestock

protection and offsetting the economic damage caused by carnivores.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1452
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Author (up) Suryawanshi, K.R., Bhatnagar, Y. V. B., Redpath, S., Mishra, C.
Title People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 50 Issue Pages 550-560
Keywords Canis lupus, Capra ibex, human–wildlife conflict, large carnivores, Panthera uncia, Pseudois nayaur, trans-Himalaya
Abstract 1. Livestock depredation by large carnivores is an important conservation and economic concern

and conservation management would benefit from a better understanding of spatial variation

and underlying causes of depredation events. Focusing on the endangered snow leopard

Panthera uncia and the wolf Canis lupus, we identify the ecological factors that predispose

areas within a landscape to livestock depredation. We also examine the potential mismatch

between reality and human perceptions of livestock depredation by these carnivores whose

survival is threatened due to persecution by pastoralists.

2. We assessed the distribution of the snow leopard, wolf and wild ungulate prey through field

surveys in the 4000 km2 Upper Spiti Landscape of trans-Himalayan India. We interviewed local

people in all 25 villages to assess the distribution of livestock and peoples’ perceptions of the risk

to livestock from these carnivores. We monitored village-level livestock mortality over a 2-year

period to assess the actual level of livestock depredation. We quantified several possibly influential

independent variables that together captured variation in topography, carnivore abundance

and abundance and other attributes of livestock. We identified the key variables influencing livestock

depredation using multiple logistic regressions and hierarchical partitioning.

3. Our results revealed notable differences in livestock selectivity and ecological correlates of

livestock depredation – both perceived and actual – by snow leopards and wolves. Stocking

density of large-bodied free-ranging livestock (yaks and horses) best explained people’s threat

perception of livestock depredation by snow leopards, while actual livestock depredation was

explained by the relative abundance of snow leopards and wild prey. In the case of wolves,

peoples’ perception was best explained by abundance of wolves, while actual depredation by

wolves was explained by habitat structure.

4. Synthesis and applications. Our results show that (i) human perceptions can be at odds

with actual patterns of livestock depredation, (ii) increases in wild prey populations will intensify

livestock depredation by snow leopards, and prey recovery programmes must be accompanied

by measures to protect livestock, (iii) compensation or insurance programmes should

target large-bodied livestock in snow leopard habitats and (iv) sustained awareness

programmes are much needed, especially for the wolf.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1396
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Author (up) The Snow Leopard Conservancy
Title A Survey of Kathmandu-based Trekking Agencies: Market Opportunities for Linking Community-Based Ecotourism with the Conservation of Snow Leopard in the Annapurna Conservation Area. Report prepared for WWF-Nepal Programme Type Report
Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume SLC Field Series Document No. 4 Issue Pages 1-22
Keywords survey; trekking; linking; community-based; ecotourism; conservation; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; annapurna; annapurna conservation area; Annapurna-Conservation-Area; area; Report; trust; nature; nature conservation; Acap; Snow Leopard Conservancy; project; Manang; local; community; environment; Culture; population; number; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; endangered; cat; prey; Himalaya; snow leopards; snow-leopards; leopards; kill; livestock; killing; herders; herder; conflict; local people; people; wildlife; tourism; incentive; protect; predator; conserve; alpine; habitat
Abstract In 2001 the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation (KMTNC), Annapurna Conservation Area (ACAP), Snow Leopard Conservancy (SLC) and WWF-Nepal initiated a collaborative project aimed at enhancing ecotourism in the Manang area, in ways that strengthen benefits to local communities while also protecting the environment and the local culture. Manang is known for its relatively dense snow leopard population, along with supporting good numbers of blue sheep, the endangered cat's principal prey through much of the Himalaya. However, snow leopards periodically kill many livestock, leading to retributive killing by herders along with other associated people-wildlife conflict. In order to encourage the local people to better co-exist with snow leopards and other wildlife, SLC, WWF-Nepal and ACAP agreed to explore ways of providing tourism benefits to local communities as an incentive to protect this rare predator and conserve its alpine habitat. Key in this regard is the possibility of developing locally guided nature treks, and accordingly, this survey was conducted in order to assess existing market opportunities and constraints to such ecotourism enterprise.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Los Gatos, California Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1022 Serial 962
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