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Author (up) Anonymous url  openurl
  Title Livestock Predation Control Workshop Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1999 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lahul-Spiti; Ladakh; Hemis; parks; reserves; refuge; protected-area; argali; abix; blue-sheep; wolves; distribution; status; population; poaching; hunting; trade; skins; livestock; pelts; coat; fur; bones; medicine; prey-depletion; herders; habitat; habitat-degradation; tourism; Tmi; Islt; predator; prey; conflict; compensation; trekking; blue; sheep; browse; protected; area; depletion; degradation; international snow leopard trust; 3940  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Full Text at URLDate of Meeting: Ladakh (1999 Oct 6- Oct 10 ) Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 359 Serial 86  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Chen, P., Gao, Y., Lee, A. T. L., Cering, L., Shi, K., Clark, S. G. url  openurl
  Title Human–carnivore coexistence in Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Nature Reserve, China: Patterns and compensation Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 197 Pages 18-26  
  Keywords Conflict Compensation Human–carnivore coexistence Management Predation patterns Qomolangma Nature Reserve  
  Abstract Livestock depredation by large carnivores is frequently reported in Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) National Nature Reserve, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Seeking to minimize conflicts, we assessed depredation patterns and ways to upgrade the compensation program. We gathered 9193 conflict records over 2011–2013 to determine the extent and tempo-spatial patterns of the depredation.Weinterviewed 22 local officials and 94 residents to learn their views on depredations and to assess the adequacy of compensation. Data showed that wolves (Canis lupus), lynx (Lynx lynx), and snowleopards (Panthera uncia)were themajor livestock predators. Total livestock

loss accounted for 1.2% of the entire stockholding (n=846,707) in the region. Wolves and lynx tended to take sheep and goats,whereas snowleopards favored yaks and cattle in relation to their proportional abundance. Predation mostly occurred in March through July. Livestock depredation by all predators when combined was best explained by terrain ruggedness and density of small- and large-bodied livestock. Temporal and spatial predation patterns variedamong carnivores.Most respondents (74%) attributed depredation causes to an increase in carnivore abundance. Only 7% blamed lax livestock herding practice for predation losses. Five percent said that

predation was the result of livestock population increases, while 11% had no idea. The compensation scheme was found to be flawed in all aspects—predation verification, application procedure, compensation standard, operational resource allocation, making payment, and other problems. To enhance management for human–carnivore coexistence, we recommend a problem-oriented, integrated, adaptive approach that targets the complex social context of the conflict and addresses the interconnected functions of decision-making process.
 
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1435  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Fox, J.L. url  openurl
  Title Snow Leopard Conservation and Related Developements in Ladakh Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1995 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume xiii Issue Pages  
  Keywords Ladakh; India; Transhimilaya; Hemis; Islt; tourism; treking; Chundawat; management; compensation; livestock; browse; 4580  
  Abstract  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Islt Place of Publication Seattle Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Full text at URLJournal Title: Snowline Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 446 Serial 307  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Hussain, I. url  openurl
  Title Conserving Biodiversity through Institutional Diversity: Concept Paper Type Miscellaneous
  Year 1999 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Iunc; status; distribution; Baltistan; Pakistan; herders; farmers; conservation; killing; poaching; conflict; livestock; predator; prey; retaliatory-killing; economy; corral; capture; trapping; Project-snow-leopard; ecotourism; tourism; compensation; markhor; trekking; browse; retaliatory; 3910  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Full Text at URL Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 362 Serial 397  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Jackson, R. url  openurl
  Title The Snow Leopard Conservancy, Dedicated to demonstrating innovative, grassroots measures that lead local shepherds to become better stewards of the endangered snow leopard, its prey and habitat Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2000 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords livestock-depredation; livestock; herders; conflict; Iucn; enclosures; pens; corrals; trap; poison; hunting; behavior; Ladakh; guard-dogs; Dogs; economics; incentives; compensation; depredation; guard; browse; 4060  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Full Text at URL Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 377 Serial 465  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Jackson, R. url  openurl
  Title Linking Snow Leopard Conservation and People-Wildlife Conflict Resolution, Summary of a multi-country project aimed at developing grass-roots measures to protect the endangered snow leopard from herder retribution Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Cat News Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 33 Issue Pages 12-15  
  Keywords livestock-depredation; livestock; pastoralists; herders; Pakistan; Nepal; Tibet; Mongolia; India; protected-areas; parks; reserves; refuge; snow-leopard-incentive-program; economics; tourism; pens; corrals; enclosures; trapping; poisoning; killing; cubs; dens; retribution; behavior; predator; prey; Qomolangma; habitat; feces; fecal-analysis; compensation; Dogs; guard-dogs; religion; conservation; browse; depredation; snow; leopard; incentive; program; fecal; analysis; guard; Dog; 4000  
  Abstract  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Full Text at URL Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 375 Serial 464  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Maheshwari, A., Midha, N.,Chehrukupalli, A. url  openurl
  Title Participatory Rural Appraisal and Compensation Intervention: Challenges and Protocols While Managing Large Carnivore–Human Conflict Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 19 Issue Pages 62-71  
  Keywords PRA, large carnivores–human conflict, compensation, livestock depredation, data collection protocols  
  Abstract When large carnivores cause socioeconomic losses in a community, conflict increases,

retaliatory killing of the carnivore can occur, and conservation efforts are undermined.

We focused on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and economic compensation

schemes as approaches for managing conflict. PRA is a tool for collecting data on

the large carnivore–human conflict and economic compensation schemes for those

affected negatively by carnivore presence. We reviewed published papers and reports

on large carnivore–human conflicts, PRA, and compensation schemes. This article

details insights into common pitfalls, key lessons learned, possible solutions including

new approaches for compensation and protocols to be followed while managing large

carnivore–human conflict. We hope to contribute to a meaningful dialogue between

locals, managers, and researchers and help in effective implementation of conservation

programs to mitigate large carnivore–human conflict around the protected areas.
 
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rakhee @ Serial 1404  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Sangay, T.; Vernes, K. url  openurl
  Title Human-wildlife conflict in the Kingdom of Bhutan: Patterns of livestock predation by large mammalian carnivores Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2008 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 141 Issue Pages 1272-1282  
  Keywords bear; Bhutan; compensation; conflict; Himalayas; leopard; livestock; predation; snow leopard; tiger  
  Abstract We examined predation activity throughout Bhutan by tiger (Panthera tigris), common leopard (Panthera pardus), snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus) on a variety of livestock types using data gathered over the first two years (2003-2005) of a compensation scheme for livestock losses. One thousand three hundred and seventy five kills were documented, with leopards killing significantly more livestock (70% of all kills),

than tigers (19%), bears (8%) and snow leopards (2%). About 50% of livestock killing were of cattle, and about 33% were of horses, with tigers, leopards and snow leopards killing a significantly greater proportion of horses than predicted from availability. Examination of cattle kills showed that leopards killed a significantly greater proportion of smaller prey (e.g., calves), whereas tigers killed a significantly greater proportion of larger prey (e.g., bulls). Overall, livestock predation was greatest in summer and autumn which corresponded with a peak in cropping agriculture; livestock are turned out to pasture and forest during the cropping season, and subsequently, are less well guarded than at other times. Across Bhutan, high horse density and low cattle and yak density were associated with high rates of livestock attack, but no relationship was found with forest cover or human population density. Several northern districts were identified as 'predation hotspots', where proportions of livestock lost to predation were considerable, and the ratio of reported kills to relative abundance of livestock was high. Implications of our findings for mitigating livestock losses and for conserving large carnivores in Bhutan are discussed.
 
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 903 Serial 842  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Shrestha, B. url  openurl
  Title Prey Abundance and Prey Selection by Snow Leopard (uncia uncia) in the Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal Type Report
  Year 2008 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-35  
  Keywords project; snow; snow leopard; snow-leopard; leopard; network; conservation; program; prey; abundance; selection; uncia; Uncia uncia; Uncia-uncia; Sagarmatha; national; national park; National-park; park; Nepal; resource; predators; predator; ecological; impact; region; community; structure; number; research; population; status; density; densities; wild; prey species; prey-species; species; Himalayan; tahr; musk; musk-deer; deer; game; birds; diet; livestock; livestock depredation; livestock-depredation; depredation; awareness; co-existence; ungulates; ungulate; Human; using; areas; area; monitoring; transect; Hair; identification; scat; attack; patterns; sighting; 1760; populations; birth; Male; Female; young; domestic; domestic livestock; 120; scats; yak; Dog; pika; wildlife; Seasons; winter; horse; study; cover; land; predation; Pressure; development; strategy; threatened; threatened species; threatened-species; conflicts; conflict; people; control; husbandry; compensation; reintroduction; blue; blue sheep; blue-sheep; sheep; free ranging  
  Abstract Predators have significant ecological impacts on the region's prey-predator dynamic and community structure through their numbers and prey selection. During April-December 2007, I conducted a research in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park (SNP) to: i) explore population status and density of wild prey species; Himalayan tahr, musk deer and game birds, ii) investigate diet of the snow leopard and to estimate prey selection by snow leopard, iii) identify the pattern of livestock depredation by snow leopard, its mitigation, and raise awareness through outreach program, and identify the challenge and opportunities on conservation snow leopard and its co-existence with wild ungulates and the human using the areas of the SNP. Methodology of my research included vantage points and regular monitoring from trails for Himalayan tahr, fixed line transect with belt drive method for musk deer and game birds, and microscopic hair identification in snow leopard's scat to investigate diet of snow leopard and to estimate prey selection. Based on available evidence and witness accounts of snow leopard attack on livestock, the patterns of livestock depredation were assessed. I obtained 201 sighting of Himalayan tahr (1760 individuals) and estimated 293 populations in post-parturient period (April-June), 394 in birth period (July -October) and 195 November- December) in rutting period. In average, ratio of male to females was ranged from 0.34 to 0.79 and ratio of kid to female was 0.21-0.35, and yearling to kid was 0.21- 0.47. The encounter rate for musk deer was 1.06 and density was 17.28/km2. For Himalayan monal, the encounter rate was 2.14 and density was 35.66/km2. I obtained 12 sighting of snow cock comprising 69 individual in Gokyo. The ratio of male to female was 1.18 and young to female was 2.18. Twelve species (8 species of wild and 4 species of domestic livestock) were identified in the 120 snow leopard scats examined. In average, snow leopard predated most frequently on Himalayan tahr and it was detected in 26.5% relative frequency of occurrence while occurred in 36.66% of all scats, then it was followed by musk deer (19.87%), yak (12.65%), cow (12.04%), dog (10.24%), unidentified mammal (3.61%), woolly hare (3.01%), rat sp. (2.4%), unidentified bird sp. (1.8%), pika (1.2%), and shrew (0.6%) (Table 5.8 ). Wild species were present in 58.99% of scats whereas domestic livestock with dog were present in 40.95% of scats. Snow leopard predated most frequently on wildlife species in three seasons; spring (61.62%), autumn (61.11%) and winter (65.51%), and most frequently on domestic species including dog in summer season (54.54%). In term of relative biomass consumed, in average, Himalayan tahr was the most important prey species contributed 26.27% of the biomass consumed. This was followed by yak (22.13%), cow (21.06%), musk deer (11.32%), horse (10.53%), wooly hare (1.09%), rat (0.29%), pika (0.14%) and shrew (0.07%). In average, domestic livestock including dog were contributed more biomass in the diet of snow leopard comprising 60.8% of the biomass consumed whilst the wild life species comprising 39.19%. The annual prey consumption by a snow leopard (based on 2 kg/day) was estimated to be three Himalayan tahr, seven musk deer, five wooly hare, four rat sp., two pika, one shrew and four livestock. In the present study, the highest frequency of attack was found during April to June and lowest to July to November. The day of rainy and cloudy was the more vulnerable to livestock depredation. Snow leopard attacks occurred were the highest at near escape cover such as shrub land and cliff. Both predation pressure on tahr and that on livestock suggest that the development of effective conservation strategies for two threatened species (predator and prey) depends on resolving conflicts between people and predators. Recently, direct control of free – ranging livestock, good husbandry and compensation to shepherds may reduce snow leopard – human conflict. In long term solution, the reintroduction of blue sheep at the higher altitudes could also “buffer” predation on livestock.  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Project funded by Snow Leopard Network's Snow Leopard Conservation Grant Program. Forum of Natural Resource Managers, Nepal. Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ 1076 Serial 887  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Tuyatsatsral, T., Ganbold, B., Ganbat, O., Enkhee, C., Nyambat, N. url  openurl
  Title Buy Sheep Program and Environmental Planning of Herder Communities Assessment Report Type Report
  Year 2009 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Mongolia, herder, livestock, compensation, insurance  
  Abstract Apparently with the decrease of number of globally endangered snow leopard due to reduction of prey species and loss of habitat, new approaches have been initiated to mitigate conflicts between herders and wildlife, ensuring local participation and building up stakeholders’ responsibility in nature conservation through supporting and guiding of local communities in participation and implementation of collaborative management in sustainable natural resource use. Actually, herder communities, aimed to protect the nature become one of that approaches and made it common consideration, especially in the buffer zones of the Turgen mountain SPA, Tsagaanshuvuut SPA and Gulzat local protected areas of Uvs aimag, where WWF MPO, UNDP and MNET are performing projects, such as “Community based conservation of biodiversity in the mountain landscapes of the Mongolia’s Altai Sayan ecoregion”. Since 2007, in Uvs aimag, particularly in Khaliunbulag bag of Khovd soum, WWF MPO initiated the compensation scheme for herders, aimed to mitigate conflicts between herders and snow leopard, reducing their loss caused by snow leopard and to support them mentally as well.

Current assessment focused on performance evaluation of “Buy sheep” program in Khaliunbulag bag and capability of herder communities , that are established around protected areas, in developing their yearly environmental workplan, including its implementation process.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author WWF Mongolia Thesis  
  Publisher WWF Mongolia Place of Publication Mongolia Editor  
  Language Mongolian Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Report is also available in English in this bibliography Approved no  
  Call Number SLN @ rana @ Serial 1097  
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