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Author Henschel, P.; Ray, J.
Title Leopards in African Rainforests: Survey and Monitoring Techniques Type Miscellaneous
Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords forest leopards; african rainforests; survey; monitoring techniques; lope reserve; gabon; central africa; congo; zaire; field testing; populations; wild meat; relative abundance; density; live-trapping; presence and absense surveys; ad-hoc survey; bushmeat; systematic survey; monitoring; individual identification; tracks; Discriminant Function Analysis; genotyping; scat; Hair; Dna; remote photography; camera trapping; capture rates; Trailmaster; Camtrakker; bait; duikers; pigs; elephant; bongo; okapi; human hunters; 5300
Abstract Monitoring Techniques Forest leopards have never been systematically surveyed in African forests, in spite of their potentially vital ecological role as the sole large mammalian predators in these systems. Because leopards are rarely seen in this habitat, and are difficult to survey using the most common techniques for assessing relative abundances of forest mammals, baseline knowledge of leopard ecology and responses to human disturbance in African forests remain largely unknown. This technical handbook sums up the experience gained during a two-year study of leopards by Philipp Henschel in the Lop‚ Reserve in Gabon, Central Africa, in 2001/2002, supplemented by additional experience from carnivore studies conducted by Justina Ray in southwestern Central African Republic and eastern Congo (Zaire) . The main focus of this effort has been to develop a protocol that can be used by fieldworkers across west and central Africa to estimate leopard densities in various forest types. In developing this manual, Henschel tested several indirect methods to assess leopard numbers in both logged and unlogged forests, with the main effort devoted to testing remote photography survey methods developed for tigers by Karanth (e.g., Karanth 1995, Karanth & Nichols 1998; 2000; 2002), and modifying them for the specific conditions characterizing African forest environments. This handbook summarizes the results of the field testing, and provides recommendations for techniques to assess leopard presence/absence, relative abundance, and densities in African forest sites. We briefly review the suitability of various methods for different study objectives and go into particular detail on remote photography survey methodology, adapting previously developed methods and sampling considerations specifically to the African forest environment. Finally, we briefly discuss how camera trapping may be used as a tool to survey other forest mammals. Developing a survey protocol for African leopards is a necessary first step towards a regional assessment and priority setting exercise targeted at forest leopards, similar to those carried out on large carnivores in Asian and South American forests.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor Wildlife Conservation Society
Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 515 Serial 382
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Author Jackson, R.; Roe, J.; Wangchuk, R.; Hunter, D.
Title Estimating Snow Leopard Population Abundance Using Photography and Capture-Recapture Techniques Type Miscellaneous
Year 2006 Publication Wildlife Society Bulletin Abbreviated Journal
Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 772-781
Keywords abundance; camera trapping; capture rates; dentistry; identification; India; photography; snow leopard; Uncia uncia
Abstract Conservation and management of snow leopards (Uncia uncial) has largely relied on anecdotal evidence and presence-absence data due to their cryptic nature and the difficult terrain they inhabit. These methods generally lack the scientific rigor necessary to accurately estimate population size and monitor trends. We evaluated the use of photography in capture-mark-recapture (CMR) techniques for estimating snow leopard population abundance and density within Hemis National Park, Ladakh, India. We placed infrared camera traps along actively used travel paths, scent-sprayed rocks, and scrape sites within 16-30 kmý sampling grids in successive winters during January and March 2003-2004. We used head-on, oblique, and side-view camera configurations to obtain snow leopard photographs at varying body orientations. We calculated snow leopard abundance estimates using the program CAPTURE. We obtained a total of 66 and 49 snow leopard captures resulting in 8.91 and 5.63 individuals per 100 trap nights during 2003 and 2004, respectively. We identified snow leopards based on the distinct pelage patters located primarily on the forelimbs, flanks, and dorsal surface of the tail. Capture probabilities ranged from 0.33 to 0.67. Density estimates ranged from 8.49 (SE+0.22) individuals per 100 kmý in 2003 to 4.45 (SE+0.16) in 2004. We believe the density disparity between years is attributable to different trap density and placement rather than to an actual decline in population size. Our results suggest that photographic capture-mark-recapture sampling may be a useful tool for monitoring demographic patterns. However, we believe a larger sample size would be necessary for generating a statistically robust estimate of population density and abundance based on CMR models.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number SLN @ rana @ 912 Serial 476
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